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Adverse events are uncommon buy discount remeron 30mg medicine rheumatoid arthritis, but duction of broad-spectrum cephalosporin use is one com- include diarrhoea (4 discount remeron 15mg mastercard symptoms 8 days before period. Effective against common respiratory pathogens Cefadroxil 2 88 but (excepting cefaclor) poor activity against Haemophilus Cefalexin 1 88 influenzae cheap remeron 30mg on line medications beta blockers. Uncomplicated upper and lower respiratory tract cheap 15mg remeron free shipping medicine keri hilson lyrics, urinary tract and soft tissue infections, and follow-on treatment once parenteral drugs have brought infection under control Second generation Parenteral Cefoxitin (a 1 90 More resistant to b-lactamases than first-generation drugs; active cephamycin) against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, (Cefotetan is Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria spp. Cefuroxime oral) may be given for community- acquired pneumonia (not when caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella or Chlamydia). The oral form, cefuroxime axetil, is also used for the range of infections listed for the first-generation oral cephalosporins (above) Third generation Parenteral Cefpirome 2. Ceftazidime 2 88 Cefotaxime and ceftriaxone are used for serious infections such as Ceftriaxone 8 56 (44 bile) septicaemia, pneumonia, and for meningitis. Used to treat urinary, upper and lower respiratory tract infections 178 Antibacterial drugs Chapter | 13 | Penems significant toxicity, and may give better outcomes for the most severe infections and those with less-susceptible Faropenem (t½approximately 1 h) is the first of this group strains. Penems are hybrids of pen- ing peak and/or trough serum vancomycin concentrations icillins and cephalosporins, and faropenem is well reduces the incidence of renal or ototoxicity. However, absorbed by mouth, and is active against a wide range of achieving adequate serum concentrations clearly correlates Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. It is less likely than Clostridium difficile), almost all strains of Staphylococcus vancomycin to cause oto- or nephrotoxicity, but serum aureus (including those that produce b-lactamase and monitoring is required to assure adequate serum concen- methicillin-resistant strains), coagulase-negative staphylo- trations for severely ill patients and those with changing re- cocci, viridans group streptococci and enterococci. Combining vancomycin with linezolid, daptomycin the Gram-negative outer membrane, rendering these bacte- or rifampicin may give better results in such cases, and ther- ria resistant. It distributes effectively into body tissues is followed by a variety of effects including membrane and is eliminated by the kidney. Vancomycin is effective in cases of antibiotic- mechanism) and reduced lipoteichoic acid and protein associated pseudomembranous colitis (caused by Clostrid- synthesis. A few Clostridium species appear innately resis- ium difficile or, less commonly, staphylococci) in a dose of tant, but resistance has proved difficult to induce in vitro 125 mg 6-hourly by mouth. Combined with an aminogly- and reduction in susceptibility during clinical use has rarely coside, it may be given i. The underlying mechanisms of resis- patients who are allergic to benzylpenicillin and for serious tance seem to involve a variety of physiological effects in- infection with multiply resisant staphylococci. Dosing is guided by to daptomycin, and resistance to both agents is acquired plasma concentration monitoring with the aim of ach- progressively in a stepwise fashion. Virtually no metabolism Inhibition of protein synthesis occurs and excretion is predominantly renal, with about 60% of a dose being recoverable unchanged from the urine. A higher dose of Inthepurposefulsearch thatfollowedthe demonstration of 6 mg/kg/day is being assessed for infective endocarditis. Use of a longer dose interval has avoided the problems of skeletal muscle pain and rises in Mode of action. The aminoglycosides act inside the cell serum creatinine phosphokinase that were reported when by binding to the ribosomes in such a way that incorrect daptomycin was first introduced in the 1980s in a twice- amino acid sequences are entered into peptide chains. Ami- daily regimen – these adverse effects led to its development noglycosides are bactericidal and exhibit concentration- being interrupted. Aminoglycosides are water-soluble action on the myocyte cell membrane, but patients receiv- and do not readily cross cell membranes. Poor absorption ing daptomycin should nevertheless be monitored for mus- from the intestine necessitates their administration i. Significant accumulation occurs in the renal cor- complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by tex. Plasma concentration should be measured regularly Gram-positive bacteria and right-sided infective endocar- (and frequently in renally impaired patients). It is usefully employed by outpatient antibi- rithms are available to guide such dosing according to otic therapy clinics because of its single daily dosing and patients’ weight and renal function, and in this case only clinical safety. Lean body-weight nity-acquired pneumonia because of inferior outcomes shouldbeusedbecauseaminoglycosides distributepoorlyin which may be related to inhibition by pulmonary adipose tissue. The immediate high plasma concentrations synthetic lipoglycopeptides with high, concentration- that result from single daily dosing are advantageous, e. The large molecular size tive against staphylococci and aerobic Gram-negative organ- of these compounds impairs their diffusion in laboratory isms including almost all the Enterobacteriaceae. Bacterial agars, creating technical difficulties in some antimicrobial resistance to aminoglycosides is an increasing but patchily susceptibility tests. The drugs are currently under assess- distributed problem, notably by acquisition of plasmids ment for clinical use in resistant and difficult Gram-positive (see p. Gentamicin remains the drug of choice, but 180 Antibacterial drugs Chapter | 13 | tobramycin may be preferred for Pseudomonas • Other reactions include rashes and haematological aeruginosa. Amikacin has the widest antibacterial abnormalities, including marrow depression, spectrum of the aminoglycosides but is best reserved haemolytic anaemia and bleeding due to antagonism for infection caused by gentamicin-resistant organisms. If local resistance rates are low, an aminoglycoside may For gentamicin and tobramycin, oto- and nephrotoxicity be included in the initial best-guess regimen for are increased if peak concentrations exceed 12–14 mg/L treatment of serious septicaemia. For amikacinthe cor- toxic antibiotic may be substituted when culture results responding concentrations are 32–34 mg/L and 10 mg/L. An aminoglycoside, usually Individual aminoglycosides • gentamicin, usually comprises part of the antimicrobial Gentamicin is active against aerobic Gram-negative ba- combination for enterococcal, streptococcal or cilli including Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus staphylococcal infection of the heart valves. In streptococcal and enterococcal endo- • Other infections: tuberculosis, tularaemia, plague, carditis gentamicin is combined with benzylpenicillin, in brucellosis. Neomycin and framycetin, too toxic for penicillin, and in enterococcal endocarditis with ampicillin systemic use, are effective for topical treatment of (true synergy is seen provided the enterococcus is not infections of the conjunctiva or external ear. Tobramycin is given by inhalation for therapy of infective exacerbations of cystic fibrosis: sufficient Dose is 3–5 mg/kg body-weight per day (the highest systemic absorption may occur to recommend assay of dose for more serious infections) either as a single dose serum concentrations in such patients. Aminoglycoside toxicity is a risk when plasma concentrations (10–14 mg/L, which correlate the dose administered is high or of long duration, and with therapeutic efficacy) and more time at lower trough the risk is higher if renal clearance is inefficient (because concentrations (16 h at <1 mg/L, which are associated of disease or age), other potentially nephrotoxic drugs with reduced risk of toxicity). Tinnitus may give warning of auditory nerve Amikacin is mainly of value because it is more resistant damage. Early signs of vestibular toxicity include to aminoglycoside-inactivating bacterial enzymes than motion-related headache, dizziness or nausea. It is finding new application in the initial mana- ototoxicity can occur with topical application, gement of multiply resistant Gram-negative sepsis, espe- including ear drops. Enough absorption can occur reversible, occur in renal tubular cells, where from both oral and topical use to cause eighth cranial nerve aminoglycosides accumulate. Aminoglycosides may impair Spectinomycin is active against Gram-negative organisms neuromuscular transmission and aggravate (or reveal) but its clinical use is confined to gonorrhoea in patients myasthenia gravis, or cause a transient myasthenic allergic to penicillin, or to infection with gonococci that syndrome in patients whose neuromuscular are b-lactam drug resistant, although resistance to it is transmission is normal. Duetotheirchelatingpropertieswithcalciumphosphate, Tetracyclines have a broad range of antimicrobial activity tetracyclines are selectively taken up in the teeth and grow- and differences between the individual members have tra- ing bones of the fetus and of children. This causes hypopla- ditionally been small, but new tetracyclines and tetracy- siaofdentalenamelwithpitting,cuspmalformation,yellow cline relatives are now being developed with even wider or brown pigmentation and increased susceptibility to car- spectra of activity that include some bacteria with acquired ies. Tetracyclines interfere with protein syn- longed tetracycline therapy can also stain the fingernails at thesis by binding to bacterial ribosomes and their selective all ages. Most tetracyclines are only partially cosmetic disadvantage and a short exposure to tetracycline absorbed from the alimentary tract, enough remaining in is unlikely significantly to delay growth. They Inhibition of protein synthesis in man causes blood urea are distributed throughout the body and cross the placenta. Liver and pancreatic damage can occur, especially eliminated by non-renal routes and are preferred for pa- in pregnancy and with renal disease, when the drugs have tients with impaired renal function.
The medial supracondylar line terminates the tendon of biceps is inserted (around the lateral collateral ligament) at the adductor tubercle cheap remeron online mastercard symptoms vaginitis. The lower end of the femur comprises the medial and lateral femoral The ﬁbular neck separates the head from the ﬁbular shaft buy remeron pills in toronto symptoms 0f diabetes. These bear the articular surfaces for articulation with the tibia mon peroneal nerve winds around the neck prior to dividing into at the knee joint purchase remeron online now symptoms yeast infection women. It has anterior order remeron line medicine 801, medial femoral aspect is smooth for articulation with the posterior surface of (interosseous) and posterior borders with anterior, lateral and posterior the patella. The posterior aspect of following characteristics: the malleolus is grooved for the passage of the tendons of peroneus The ﬂattened upper end of the tibiaathe tibial plateauacomprises longus and brevis. The lateral malleolus projects further downwards medial and lateral tibial condyles for articulation with the respective than the medial malleolus. The patella The intercondylar area is the space between the tibial condyles on The ligamentum patellae, which is attached to the apex of the patella which can be seen two projectionsathe medial and lateral intercondy- and the tibial tuberosity, is the true insertion of the quadriceps and the lar tubercles. This arrange- The horns of the lateral meniscus are attached close to either side of the ment constitutes the extensor mechanism. It has anterior, medial and lat- The posterior surface of the patella is smooth and covered with articu- eral borders and posterior, lateral and medial surfaces. It is divided into a large lateral and a smaller medial facet The anterior border and medial surface of the shaft are subcutaneous for articulation with the femoral condyles. The osteology of the lower limb 93 42 The arteries of the lower limb Superficial epigastric Superficial (to abdominal wall) circumflex Femoral iliac Superficial external pudendal Deep external pudendal Femoral nerve Femoral sheath Femoral vein Lateral circumflex Profunda femoris Medial circumflex Plantar metatarsal artery Anastomosis Perforating Deep plantar arch with dorsal arteries artery Medial Lateral plantar plantar artery artery Gap in adductor magnus Flexor digitorum Abductor accessorius Popliteal hallucis Genicular arteries Soleus arch to knee joint Posterior tibial Fig. Tibialis Course: the femoral artery commences as a continuation of the ex- anterior and extensor digitorum longus ﬂank the artery throughout its ternal iliac artery behind the inguinal ligament at the mid-inguinal point. Extensor hallucis In the groin the femoral vein lies immediately medial to the artery and longus commences on the lateral side but crosses the artery to lie both are enclosed in the femoral sheath. The femoral artery dorsum of the foot to the level of the base of the metatarsals and then descends the thigh to pass under sartorius and then through the adductor between the two heads of the ﬁrst dorsal interosseous muscle to gain (Hunter’s) canal to become the popliteal artery. Prior to passing to Branches: the sole it gives off the 1st dorsal metatarsal branch and via an arcuate Branches in the upper part of the femoral triangleafour branch the three remaining dorsal metatarsal branches (Fig. Near its origin it gives rise The posterior tibial artery to medial and lateral circumﬂex femoral branches. These con- Course: the posterior tibial artery arises as a terminal branch of the tribute to the trochanteric and cruciate anastomoses (see below). It is accompanied by its venae comitantes and supplies The profunda descends deep to adductor longus in the medial com- the ﬂexor compartment of the leg. These circle the femur posteriorly perforating, and supplying, all The artery ultimately passes behind the medial malleolus to divide into muscles in their path. The profunda and perforating branches ulti- medial and lateral plantar arteries under the ﬂexor retinaculum. The mately anastomose with the genicular branches of the popliteal latter branches gain access to the sole deep to abductor hallucis. Posterior to the medial malleolus the structures which can be identiﬁedafrom front to backaare: tibialis posterior, ﬂexor digitorum The trochanteric anastomosis longus, posterior tibial artery and venae comitantes, the tibial nerve and This arterial anastomosis is formed by branches from the medial and ﬂexor hallucis longus. It lies close to the trochanteric fossa and pro- Peroneal arteryathis artery usually arises from the posterior tibial vides branches that ascend the femoral neck beneath the retinacular artery approximately 2. It ends by dividing into a The cruciate anastomosis perforating branch that pierces the interosseous membrane and a This anastomosis constitutes a collateral supply. Lateral plantar arteryapasses between ﬂexor accessorius and ﬂexor digitorum brevis to the lateral aspect of the sole where it The popliteal artery divides into superﬁcial and deep branches. The deep branch runs Course: the femoral artery continues as the popliteal artery as it between the 3rd and 4th muscle layers of the sole to continue as the passes through the hiatus in adductor magnus to enter the popliteal deep plantar arch which is completed by the termination of the space. The arch gives rise to plantar metatarsal the capsule of the knee joint and then on the fascia overlying popliteus branches which supply the toes (Fig. In the fossa it is the deepest structure, ren- sends branches which join with the plantar metatarsal branches of dering it difﬁcult to feel its pulsations. Atheroma causes narrowing of the peripheral arteries with a con- Branches: muscular, sural and ﬁve genicular arteries are given off. When symptoms are intolerable, pain is present at The anterior tibial artery rest or ischaemic ulceration has occurred, arterial reconstruction is Course: the anterior tibial artery passes anteriorly from its origin, required. Disease which is limited in extent may be suitable for inter- membrane giving off muscular branches to the extensor compartment ventional procedures such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the leg. The arteries of the lower limb 95 43 The veins and lymphatics of the lower limb From lower abdomen Inguinal lymph nodes From perineum and gluteal region Vein linking great and small saphenous veins Great saphenous vein Popliteal lymph nodes Short saphenous vein Fig. The arrows indicate the direction of lymph flow Superficial epigastric Inguinal ligament Femoral Pubic tubercle artery Edge of saphenous opening Superficial Femoral vein circumflex Deep fascia of thigh iliac Superficial external pudendal Great saphenous vein Fig. Failure of this ‘muscle pump’ to work efﬁciently, towards becoming varicose and consequently often require surgery. It passes anterior to the medial malleolus, Varicose veins along the anteromedial aspect of the calf (with the saphenous nerve), These are classiﬁed as: migrates posteriorly to a handbreadth behind patella at the knee and Primary: due to inherent valve dysfunction. It pierces the Secondary: due to impedance of ﬂow within the deep venous circula- cribriform fascia to drain into the femoral vein at the saphenous open- tion. The terminal part of the great saphenous vein usually receives pelvic tumours or previous deep venous thrombosis. They receive lymph from the majority of the superﬁcial tis- below the medial malleolus, in the gaiter area, in the mid-calf region, sues of the lower limb. They in the perforators are directed inwards so that blood ﬂows from receive lymph from the superﬁcial tissues of the: lower trunk below the superﬁcial to deep systems from where it can be pumped upwards level of the umbilicus, the buttock, the external genitalia and the lower assisted by the muscular contractions of the calf muscles. The superﬁcial nodes drain into the deep nodes tem is consequently at higher pressure than the superﬁcial and thus, through the saphenous opening in the deep fascia. In addition they The small saphenous vein arises from the lateral end of the dorsal also receive lymph from the skin and superﬁcial tissues of the heel and venous network on the foot. The deep nodes over the back of the calf to pierce the deep fascia in an inconstant posi- convey lymph to external iliac and thence to the para-aortic nodes. This can be congenital, due to aberrant lymphatic formation, or acquired The deep veins of the lower limb such as post radiotherapy or following certain infections. In develop- The deep veins of the calf are the venae comitantes of the anterior and ing countries infection with Filaria bancrofti is a signiﬁcant cause of posterior tibial arteries which go on to become the popliteal and lymphoedema that can progress to massive proportions requiring limb femoral veins. The veins and lymphatics of the lower limb 97 44 The nerves of the lower limb I Anterior superior iliac spine Inguinal ligament Lateral cutaneous External oblique aponeurosis nerve of thigh Femoral nerve Femoral artery Iliacus Femoral vein Femoral canal Psoas tendon Lacunar ligament Pubic tubercle Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh Pectineus Iliacus Inguinal ligament Femoral nerve Pubic tubercle Nerve to sartorius To pectineus Tensor fasciae latae Pectineus To vastus lateralis Adductor longus Psoas Femoral vein To vastus intermedius Great saphenous vein and rectus femoris Femoral artery Sartorius Saphenous nerve Intermediate To vastus medialis cutaneous nerve Medial cutaneous of thigh nerve of thigh (Skin of front of thigh) (Skin of medial thigh) Rectus femoris Gracilis Obturator externus Pectineus Posterior division Adductor Adductor brevis longus Anterior division Gracilis Deep fascia (Skin of medial leg Branch to and foot) Fig. The latter supply Course: the majority of the branches of the plexus pass through the sartorius and pectineus. The latter nerve is the only branch to extend Intra-abdominal branchesathese are described in Chapter 21. Obese patients sometimes describe paraesthesiae over the Origins: the anterior divisions of the anterior primary rami of lateral thigh. At this point it lies on iliacus, which it supplies, and is situ- Anterior divisionagives rise to an articular branch to the hip joint ated immediately lateral to the femoral sheath. It branches within the as well as muscular branches to adductor longus, brevis and gra- femoral triangle only a short distance (5 cm) beyond the inguinal liga- cilis. Course: the sacral nerves emerge through the anterior sacral foram- Course: it traverses the popliteal fossa over the popliteal vein and ina. The nerves unite, and are joined by the lumbosacral trunk (L4,5), artery from the lateral to medial side.