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Bacterial endocarditis is the result of a bacterial infection that spreads through the bloodstream and lodging in the heart discount decadron 1 mg amex acne breakout, causing infection in one or more of the heart valves buy generic decadron 0.5 mg skin care tips in urdu. Although there is a connection between endocarditis and glomerular dysfunction quality 0.5 mg decadron acne 60 year old woman, the exact mechanism is not clear buy decadron 1 mg amex skin care ingredients to avoid. Immunological diseases such as lupus and Goodpasture syndrome can trigger glomerulonephritis. Lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects many organs, such as the skin, joints, kidneys, heart, lungs, and blood. Goodpasture syndrome is a rare immunological lung disorder that can mimic pneumonia and causes bleeding in the lungs and glomeruli. Kidney blood flow is autoregulated; it is also profoundly influenced by nerves and hormones. Glomerular filtration rate is determined by the glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient, glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure, hydrostatic pressure in the space of the Bowman capsule, and glomerular capillary colloid osmotic pressure. The transport of water and most solutes across tubular epithelia is dependent on active + reabsorption of Na. The kidneys save water for the body by producing urine with a total solute concentration (i. The loops of Henle are countercurrent multipliers; they set up an osmotic gradient in the kidney medulla. Vasa recta are countercurrent exchangers; they passively help maintain the medullary gradient. Collecting ducts are osmotic equilibrating devices; they have a low water permeability, which is increased by arginine vasopressin. The renal clearance of a substance is equal to its rate of excretion divided by its plasma concentration. Inulin clearance provides the most accurate measure of glomerular filtration rate. The rate of net tubular reabsorption of a substance is equal to its filtered load minus its excretion rate. The rate of net tubular secretion of a substance is equal to its excretion rate minus its filtered load. An elderly, diabetic woman arrives at the hospital in a severely dehydrated condition and is breathing rapidly. Blood plasma (glucose) is 500 mg/dL (normal is ~100 mg/dL) and the urine (glucose) is zero (dipstick test). As a consequence, the proximal tubules may be able to reabsorb all of the filtered glucose (because the filtered load is reduced), even though the plasma (glucose) is elevated. If splay is increased, glucose Tm is low, or threshold is low, then glucose should be present (not absent) from the urine. An abnormally high glucose Tm would reduce glucose excretion, but in the scenario presented, this is not a likely cause of the absence of glucose in the urine. This substance is a weak, lipid-soluble organic acid that is reabsorbed by nonionic diffusion in the kidneys. Which of the following would be the best way to promote urinary excretion of this substance? Excretion of phenobarbital is promoted by increasing urine output and by making the urine more alkaline. The latter would keep phenobarbital in its anionic form, which is not reabsorbed by the kidney tubules. A few weeks before, he had an upper respiratory tract infection, probably caused by a virus. Puffiness around the eyes, abdominal swelling, and pitting edema in the legs are observed. The child is treated with the corticosteroid prednisone, and the edema and proteinuria disappear in 2 weeks. Glomeruli are normal by light microscopy, but effacement (obliteration) of podocyte foot processes and loss of filtration slits are seen with the electron microscope. What features in this case would lead you to suspect the presence of nephrotic syndrome? Why does the abnormally high rate of urinary protein excretion underestimate the rate of renal protein loss? Proteinuria is a consequence of an abnormally high permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier to the plasma proteins. This condition might be due to an increased physical size of “holes” or pores in the basement membrane and filtration slit diaphragms or a loss of fixed negative charges from the glomerular filtration barrier. Proteins that have leaked across the glomerular filtration barrier are not only excreted in the urine but are reabsorbed by proximal tubules. The endocytosed proteins are digested in lysosomes to amino acids, which are returned to the circulation. Both increased renal catabolism by tubule cells and increased excretion of serum albumin in the urine contribute to the hypoalbuminemia. Note that the permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier to macromolecules (plasma proteins) was abnormally high, but permeability to fluid was not increased. The edema is due to altered capillary Starling forces and renal retention of salt and water. The decline in plasma (protein) lowers the plasma colloid osmotic pressure, favoring fluid movement out of the capillaries into the interstitial compartment. The edema is particularly noticeable in the soft skin around the eyes (periorbital edema). The abdominal distention (in the absence of organ enlargement) suggests ascites (an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the + + abdominal cavity). Although the exact reasons for renal Na retention are controversial, a decrease in the effective arterial blood volume may be an important stimulus (see Chapter 23). This leads to activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system and + stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, both of which favor renal Na conservation. In + addition, distal segments of the nephron reabsorb more Na than usual because of an intrinsic change in the kidneys. Explain the indicator–dilution principle and its application to the measurement of body fluid volumes. Describe and contrast the ionic composition of extracellular and intracellular fluids. Compare the percentage of filtered sodium reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting ducts. Explain how the following affect renal sodium excretion: glomerular filtration rate, the renin– angiotensin–aldosterone system, intrarenal pressure, natriuretic hormones and factors, renal sympathetic nerve stimulation, estrogens, glucocorticoids, osmotic diuretics, poorly reabsorbed anions, and diuretic drugs. Explain the relation between sodium chloride, extracellular fluid volume (or effective arterial blood volume), and blood pressure. The kidney accomplishes these homeostatic functions both independently and in concert with other organ systems, especially the neuroendocrine system.
Flexible endoscopes contain a bundle of flexible biopsy purchase 1mg decadron amex skin care database, polypectomy fibreoptic fibres that transmit the image either to tumour ablation/fulguration/resection an eyepiece or to a microchip video-camera from endoscopic papillotomy/sphincterotomy where the image is transmitted electronically to a stenting television monitor/screen buy cheapest decadron and decadron acne and dairy. Certain endoscopes require transurethral resection of bladder tumours and the inside of the organ (e order decadron 0.5mg amex skin care 5 steps. The application of endoscopic surgical proce- Most endoscopes have a working channel through dures is expanding all the time buy generic decadron 0.5 mg line skin care routine for oily skin. Their application which instruments can be passed such as biopsy to specific problems and diseases is described in the forceps, diathermy snares, Dormia baskets, stents relevant chapters. Most flexible endoscopes are Rigid endoscopes consist of a central collection controlled by rotating levers that allow the tip to be of rod lenses which transmit light from the image to manipulated up and down, right and left. Additional an eyepiece and provide a magnified view of the manipulation can be achieved by rotating the whole organ being observed. Endoscopes are available with scope, a manoeuvre which is particularly valuable different angles of view. Flexible endoscopic examination of the oesopha- gus, stomach and duodenum using an end-viewing Small bowel enteroscopy scope is now the examination of choice for most conditions affecting these organs. It allows accurate This is a developing technique that uses a very long diagnosis of peptic ulceration, hiatus hernia, reflux endoscope passed down into the small bowel with oesophagitis, polyps, malignancy, strictures and the assistance of peristalsis. It takes a considerable can be used therapeutically for stricture dilatation, time to advance the scope down into the small tumour ablation (photodynamic and laser therapy), bowel and, even then, very rarely provides a com- stenting of tumours, injection of varices and other plete view of the bowel. Colonoscopy Endoscopic retrograde Colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy can pro- cholangiopancreatography vide an excellent view of the whole colon follow- This procedure requires the use of a side-viewing ing appropriate and adequate bowel preparation. If stones are found in the bile duct to reach the caecum and even enter the terminal an endoscopic sphincterotomy can be performed ileum. Some endoscopists like to confirm this with using a diathermy sphincterotome and the stones an ileal biopsy. Colonoscopy also permits a range of removed with a balloon catheter or Dormia basket treatment options such as diathermy snare polypec- (Fig 1. If an obstructing tumour is encountered, tomy, ‘hot biopsy’ excision of small polyps, endscopic a plastic stent or an expandable metal stent can be submucosal excision of sessile polyps (after eleva- inserted. However, it is important to consider future tion of the polyp by the submucosal injection of an treatment options before inserting a stent that may adrenalin-containing fluid), balloon dilatation of preclude further forms of treatment. It is the investigation sionally, pancreatic duct stenting is used to treat of choice when looking for the source of bleeding chronic pancreatitis. Laparoscopy Diagnostic laparoscopy has been used for years by gynaecologists but its use has become increasingly popular with general surgeons over the last two decades. Open insertion (Hassan technique) has become increasingly utilized but the creation of an initial pneumoperitoneum by means of a Veress needle still remains popular with some surgeons. To avoid serious damage both used through an endoscope: a Dormia basket, a sphicterotome, must be aimed away from the main retroperitoneal a cannula, biopsy graspers and a biopsy brush vessels – the inferior vena cava and the aorta. Endoscopic techniques 13 Although the majority of laparoscopic proce- used for diagnosis and treatment. Some endo- dures are now therapeutic operations, diagnostic scopists still prefer to use a rigid instrument for the laparoscopy is still a valuable investigation for the removal of foreign bodies and the endobronchial staging of tumours, biopsy of peritoneal or liver laser treatment of tumours, even though these pro- metastases and the assessment of pelvic pathol- cedures can now be satisfactorily performed with a ogy, especially in young female patients with lower flexible endoscope. Operative proce- evaluating the significance of symptoms such a hae- dures are considered in the relevant chapters. It is also useful for following up radiological abnor- Cystoscopy malities such as lung collapse, consolidation, lung masses and even diffuse interstitial lung disease. Rigid cystoscopy for diagnostic and some therapeu- The therapeutic applications include biopsy, bron- tic procedures has been in use for many decades. Bleeding is a worrying complica- male and female patients within an hour or so of tion as it can obscure the view and be difficult to presentation, in the outpatient department, using treat because of the instrument’s narrow suction local anaesthesia, and to take biopsies, resect small channel. It is wise to obtain a clotting screen before bladder tumours, visualize the upper urinary tracts subjecting a patient to a bronchoscopy. These problems require active treat- large tumours and prostatectomy using diathermy ment but are usually short lived. Thoracoscopy Small calibre ureteroscopes now make it pos- sible to visualize the lumen of the ureter and the Thoracoscopy allows intrathoracic diagnostic and entire upper urinary tract and use laser lithotripsy, therapeutic procedures to be carried out without ultrasonic probes and fine basket catheters for having to resort to open thoracotomy. The techniques that fragment stones allows the removal procedure is facilitated by the anaesthetist using a of large calculi by this route. This means that Bronchoscopy insufflation is not an absolute requirement, but many thoracoscopists prefer to use a low pressure Fibreoptic bronchoscopy, which has almost com- insufflation up to a maximum pressure of 5 mmHg. Insufflation is not required as the lumen is cedures such as sympathectomy, splanchnicec- permanently open. The flexible bronchoscope can tomy, oesophageal myotomy and bullae resection be passed transorally or transnasally and can be is growing. Arthroscopy as a non-dimensional wave (an A scan) or if provides an excellent view of any intra-articular a sweeping beam is used, a two-dimensional disease process and, as with other endoscopic black and white picture can be constructed techniques, enables therapeutic procedures to be (a B scan). The most commonly used instru- with varying shades of grey (greyscale ment has a diameter of 4mm. Fluid irrigation is required to dis- Ultrasound is non-invasive and carries no tend the joint, and a wide range of instruments such radiation risk and is therefore safe. Ultrasonic blood flow detection utilizes the Diagnostic arthroscopy and the above operative Doppler principle. The change in the frequency of procedures are routinely carried out in the knee, an ultrasound wave reflected from a moving red cell ankle, shoulder, elbow and wrist. They are presented to the X-ray investigations using radio-opaque contrast media 15 On whom and when was the X-ray performed? There are three common X-ray views: posteroanterior view anteroposterior view lateral views (left or right) and three common patient positions: erect supine decubitus (lying on one side, right or left). Always begin with the sequence of questions described above before examining the details of the structures revealed on the X-ray film. Plain X-rays of the chest and abdomen should not be ordered automatically but should be under- taken with a specific diagnostic question in mind. Gastrografin) are of value when a per- Before attempting to interpret any X-ray, it is foration or anastomotic leak is suspected. However, essential to establish the following facts by routinely their use is contraindicated if there is any danger asking these questions. For the opposite effect, intravenous cholangiography metoclopramide (Maxolon) 20mg may be given to increase peristalsis and speed the passage of barium. This investigation involves a percutaneous punc- ture of the liver and a dilated intrahepatic bile duct The barium enema (often assisted by ultrasound scanning) followed by the injection of a radio-opaque contrast medium Although this investigation has largely been super- into the dilated intrahepatic system to outline the seded by endoscopy it is still needed when colon- whole biliary tree. This approach to the bile ducts oscopy fails, usually because of a tortuous sigmoid may also be used therapeutically to insert stents colon or severe diverticular disease. Adequate preliminary bowel preparation is Its complications include bleeding (it is essential essential, i. The contrast medium, a 25 per cent barium sul- phate and water mixture, is administered though The intraoperative cholangiogram a rectal catheter by gravity from a height of about 4 feet (120 cm). If double contrast films are required, Direct cannulation of the cystic duct may be under- air is introduced via the rectal tube once the barium taken during both open and laparoscopic surgery.
The host or the man who enjoys health or suffers from communicable and noncommunicable-for the disease (The World Health Organization defines health purpose of epidemiological study purchase decadron us skin care collagen. The agents generic 0.5mg decadron with visa acne keloidalis nuchae pictures, whether living (such as bacteria and Definition of Epidemiology viruses) or nonliving (such as radiation purchase decadron 0.5mg fast delivery skin care zahra, temperature As the scope of epidemiology has enlarged over the and minerals order genuine decadron online -, e. The environment comprising of food, air, water, from the previous narrow definition as “the branch of housing, place of work, etc. Some broader definitions are given below: The host, the agent and the environment are discussed • It is an orderly study of incidence in human society in detail later in this chapter. The outcome of the host- of any morbid state (communicable and non- agent environment interaction may be in the nature of communicables disease, accidents, injuries and health, discomfort, disability, disease or death. This is so because the exact outcome that determine the frequency of occurrence and is determined by host factors inherent in each individual. To put it even more simply, “epidemiology is the study of distribution and determinants of health related events in population. The various types of agents are listed below: It includes both human and animal populations. Biological Agents • Arthropods: Examples are mites and lice, causing Distribution pediculosis and scabies respectively. However, the It refers to distribution of the event in relation to time, role of arthropods in disease transmission is much place and person. The description of such distribution more often as vectors of other agents such as is known as descriptive epidemiology. Determinants Their epidemiological characteristics in relation to man and environments are discussed under “General These refer to the etiological or risk factors related to Epidemiology of Communicable Disease”, Chapter 15. When these factors The attributes of biological agents are as follows: are studied and analyzed along with information from • Inherent nature and characteristics” Morphology, other disciplines (such as genetics, biochemistry, motility, physiology, reproduction, metabolism, nut- microbiology, immunology, etc. The Epidemiological Triad • Characteristics directly related to man: The occurrence and manifestations of any disease, whether – Infectivity or ability to gain access and adapt to communicable or noncommunicable, are determined by the human host the interactions between the agent, the host and the – Pathogenicity or ability to set up a tissue reaction environment, which together constitute the epidemiological – Virulence of severity of reaction triad (Fig. Nutrient Agents The Agent The known agents in relation to food and nutrition are energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins, minerals, 12 The agent is defined as an organism, a substance or a water and fibre. Their nature and role in health and force, the presence or lack of which may initiate a disease are discussed in detail in Chapter 22. Chemical Agents Genetic endowment: The genetic constitution either increases susceptibility to disease or may protect against They are chemical substances of two types: it. External agents such as lead, arsenic, alcohol, dust, individuals to specific diseases. Examples are urea (uremia) in renal failure like measles, whooping cough, diarrhea, etc. Children contact diseases because of lack of protective immunity while the aged Important ones are atmospheric pressure, temperature, suffer because of degenerative changes. Hemophilia physical environment comprising of air, water, food, and gout are seen only in males while carcinoma cervix place of living and place of work, etc. The Host Marital status: The pattern of disease in the married The host is the man himself. Sexually transmitted being that determine how he reacts to the agents in the diseases are common in unmarried adults. Also, man has an Nutritional status: Examples of disease conditions important role in disease transmission. Many organisms related to poor nutritional-status are contracted pelvis have established biologic relationships with man, to the due to osteomalacia in women (Vit. D deficiency), extent that their propagation depends on finding a portal Wernicke’s encephalopathy in alcoholics (thiamine of entry in man, multiplying in the tissues and coexisting deficiency) goiter in endemic areas (iodine deficiency) with the human host. Internal environment is comprised by the various tissues, organs and organ systems within the human Living habits, food habits, use of alcohol, tobacco, drugs, body. Host factors are of the body is functioning smoothly, efficiently and described in detail in Chapter 14. Fault in functioning of one or more description of important host factors determining disease 13 component parts results in disharmony or disease. In the physical comprised by those things to which one is exposed environment there may also be included the various after conception. Macroenvironment is another term chemicals and chemical pollutants found in the physical used to denote external environment. Adjustment Biological environment means the universe of all to stimuli or agents in the external environment is living things that surround man, except the human very important. They may endeavor to maintain health by adjustment to all be reservoirs of disease germs (e. This adjustment or around the host (the man) and their activities and maladjustment of man to agents in the environment interactions. It may be considered under two headings- is the ecological concept of health or disease. Social factors pertain to the society in which man • Heatstroke is the result of interaction between high lives. Society, in this context, includes other family temperature (agent) and body (host) in an environ- members, neighbours, other members of the ment characterised by hot, humid and still air. This community and the State or Government is an example of failure of adjustment by man to organisation. Had the the physical, mental and social state of man to which environment been favourable (i. For example, the size of the family of humid, still air), the high temperature would not affects the health of the family members. If the person is exposed to the quent problems like overcrowding, tensions, compe- tuberculosis bacilli too often in a closed room and titiveness and exposure to toxic effluents, are also his resistance is low, he may succumb to the infection important. Environment is the source or reservoir for the agents Broadly speaking, overall socioeconomic and political of disease. It helps in the transmission of agents to the organization affect the technical level of medical care, host, bringing about their contact and interaction. Thus there is a constant attempt towards and laws controllng health related environmental adjustment and re-adjustment between the man and hazards. Another important aspect of the social the causative agents within the same environment. It is adjustment is achieved, there is health, harmony or possible for resistance to develop when certain symbiosis. Maladjustment or imbalance between the practices run counter to medical preaching. Economic factors refer to the material assets and gains The environment may be living or nonliving and the of the human economic society. Generally we study determine the economic status of man, which the environment under three headings-physical, bio- decisively affects his health.
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