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Factor A: Volume Soft Medium Loud B2: X 4 X 12 X 6 female Here order geriforte in india sriram herbals, as volume increases buy geriforte online now herbals best, mean persuasiveness scores first increase but then decrease purchase 100 mg geriforte with visa herbals vaginal dryness, producing a nonlinear relationship purchase 100 mg geriforte amex himalaya herbals. Thus, there is a different relationship between volume and persuasiveness scores for each gender level. A two-way interaction effect is present when the relationship between one factor and the dependent scores changes with, or depends on, the level of the other factor that is present. Thus, whether increasing volume always increases scores depends on whether we’re talking about males or females. In other words, an interaction effect occurs when the influence of changing one factor is not the same for each level of the other factor. Here we have an interaction effect because increasing the volume does not have the same effect for males as it does for females. Conversely, an interaction effect would not be present if the cell means formed the same pattern for males and females. For example, say that the cell means had been as follows: Factor A: Volume Soft Medium Loud Factor B: Male X 5 X 10 X 15 Gender Female X 20 X 25 X 30 Here, each increase in volume increases scores by about 5 points, regardless of whether it’s for males or females. Or, in other words, there’s no interaction when there is the same relationship between the scores and one factor for each level of the other factor. To write the H0 and Ha in symbols is complicated, but in words, H0 is that the cell means do not represent an interaction effect in the population, and Ha is that at least some of the cell means do represent an interaction effect in the population. Then, as always, we graph the interaction, perform post hoc comparisons to determine which cell means differ significantly, and compute the proportion of vari- ance accounted for by the interaction. An effect is present if the relationship One Pill Two Pills between one factor and the dependent scores changes as the levels of the other factor change. The means to examine for the interaction are interaction effect because the influence of increasing called the ____ means. When we change from A1 to A2 for B2, the cell Or, looking at each column, the influence of increasing means are ____ and ____. With 1 pill, 20-year-olds score higher (115) than 10-year-olds (105), but with 2 pills 4. How does the influence of changing from A1 to A2 10-year-olds score higher (145) than 20-year-olds (115). However, because we have two main effects and the interaction, we have three treat sources of between-groups variance, so we compute three mean squares. Computing the Sums and Means Your first step is to organize the data in each cell. For example, in the male–soft cell, ©X 5 4 1 9 1 11 5 24; ©X 2 5 42 1 92 1 112 5 218. Note the n in each column (here n 5 6) and compute the mean for the scores in each column (for example, Xsoft 5 6). Sum the ©X2 from each cell, so ©X 2 5 218 1 377 1 838 1 tot tot 56 1 470 1 116 5 2075. The sum of squares within groups plus the total sum of squares between groups equals the total sum of squares. The degrees of freedom between groups for factor A is kA 2 1, where kA is the number of levels in factor A. The degrees of freedom between groups for factor B is kB 2 1, where kB is the num- ber of levels in factor B. The degrees of freedom between groups for the interaction is the df for factor A multiplied times the df for factor B. The degrees of freedom within groups equals N 2 kA3B, where N is the total N of the study and kA3B is the number of cells in the study. Use this to check your previous calcu- lations, because the sum of the above dfs should equal dftot. Computing the Mean Squares Any mean square equals the appropriate sum of squares divided by the appropriate df. Interpreting Each F Each Fobt is tested in the same way as in the previous chapter: The Fobt may be larger than 1 because (1) H0 is true but we have sampling error or (2) H0 is false and at least two means represent a relationship in the population. To find the Fcrit for a particular Fobt, in the F-tables (Table 5 in Appendix C), use the dfbn that you used in computing that Fobt and your dfwn. Notice that because factors A and B have different df between groups, they have dif- ferent critical values. Therefore, we conclude that changing the volume of a message produced significant differences in persuasiveness scores. Or we can say that the difference between the male and female popula- tions we’d see depends on whether a message is played at soft, medium, or loud volume. Note: It is just a coincidence of your particular data which Fs will be significant: any combination of the main effects and/or the interaction may or may not be significant. Graphing and Post Hoc Comparisons with Main Effects We graph each main effect separately, plotting all main effect means, even those that the post hoc tests may indicate are not significant. As usual, label the Y axis as the mean of the dependent scores and place the levels of the factor on the X axis. In partic- ular, the n is always the number of scores used to compute each mean you are compar- ing right now! Also, because qk depends on k, when factors have a different k, they have different values of qk. Thus, soft produces a significant difference from the other volumes: increasing volume from soft to medium and from soft to loud produced significant differences (increases) in scores. After comparing the main effect means of factor A, we move on the main effect means of factor B. Graphing the Interaction Effect An interaction can be a beast to interpret, so always graph it! To produce the simplest graph, place the factor with the most levels on the X axis. You’ll show the other factor by drawing a separate line on the graph for each of its levels. As in any graph, you’re showing the rela- tionship between the X and Y variables, but here you’re showing the relationship between volume and persuasiveness, first for males and then for females. There, we first looked at the relationship between volume and persuasiveness scores for males: Their cell means are Xsoft 5 8, Xmedium 5 11, and Xloud 5 16. Then we looked at the relationship between volume and scores for females: Their cell means are Xsoft 5 4, Xmedium 5 12, and Xloud 5 6. For males (the dashed line), as volume increases, mean persuasiveness scores increase. However, for females (the solid line), as volume increases, persuasiveness scores first increase but then decrease. Thus, we see a linear relationship for males and a different, nonlinear relationship for females. Therefore, the graph shows an interaction effect by showing that the effect of increasing volume depends on whether the participants are male or female.
But most importantly keep moving - 176 - the triad exercise program your body buy geriforte 100mg mastercard herbs for weight loss, all parts of it! In the elderly cheap 100 mg geriforte visa herbals bestellen, it is more important to live by the popular phrase “use it or lose it! Just stand arm’s length from a wall (palms on the wall) order geriforte 100mg on-line herbs books, feet shoulder-width apart buy 100mg geriforte herbs during pregnancy, and move your pelvis toward the wall. Then move your pelvis away while flexing forward with palms still flat on the wall. Hold your caffeinated beverages (coffees, teas, en- ergy drinks, soft drinks, etc. If you are standing, “flexion” is bending forward from the waist, and “exten- sion” is tilting backward from the waist (try not to curve your back but bend at the waist). If sitting on the ground with straightened legs, you can loop the towel or belt over your arches as ex- tensions of your arms and bend forward from the waist. Stella Volpe, professor and chair, Drexel University, Department of Nu- trition for this suggestion. The final stages of this book were written sitting for hours on such a medicine ball in my home office). Put some type of cushion and/ or arch support in your shoe to see if it helps with your legs and back. Jog on softer surfaces such as grass or dirt, or do other exercises like a stair master, stepper, elliptical rider, etc. Spread your feet shoulder-width apart, with palms flat against the wall directly in front of you at shoulder level. Let your pelvis sink toward the wall with legs straight and your head tilted gently back, only if comfortable (modified Upward Dog). Hold for five to ten seconds, then walk your hands down the wall so your butt sticks out, you are flexed forward at the hips with your legs straight, and your arms are stretched at your head level or above (modified Downward Dog). It can be done anywhere there is a wall, from the inside of an airplane to the side of your car. If you sit all day, do wall yoga every half-hour or hour throughout the day, with five to twenty pumping actions alternating between flexion and extension. Just three to five minutes one to three times daily can make a world of difference in your back health. Slowly turn your tor- so away from the direction of your arm so you stretch the front part of your shoulder socket. Keep turning gently your total torso away from the arm that is placed palm- flat against the wall until you feel a nice stretch. Tilt the pelvis forward and head backward with an arch in your back that is a comfortable stretch (no pain). Daily exercises and stretches, even for five minutes a day, can keep a “bad back” a non-issue. If Americans exercised daily for one-tenth (thirty min- utes) or one-fifth (one hour) of the time they were watching televi- sion per day on some type of aerobic machine—Game Over! This wouldn’t cost anybody a dime except the initial investment in some kind of exercise machine. Millions if not billions of dollars in healthcare costs could be saved from this simple campaign. Just think—if we added a whole-food diet to this national campaign of exercising while watching television! So don’t ever tell me you watch television but don’t have time to exercise—that is not an excuse! When you first turn on the television for your favorite show, get on whatever piece of equipment you have and stay on it for the duration of that show minimally. Even if you can’t afford to purchase some type of exercise equipment, if you just stand up and then sit down from your couch or chair continuously for a half-hour for just one show, or stepped in place, that would dramatically change the health of this country. Recently, I had a seventy-year-old patient who was so proud that she had walked on the treadmill during a half-hour of the Oprah show five days per week (as I had been harping on for months! Once it is part of you, and you incorporate it daily into your life in fun, creative ways, it is not work anymore and you are truly living the principle “make your health a fun part- time job. The great thing about exercise is this: if you just do it—if you just put in the time—you are guaranteed results. You don’t have to be a rocket scientist or an elite athlete; you just have to do it. And when you add the dietary steps previously mentioned, the results come faster and are longer lasting. While most people, deep down, recognize that the mind is the most powerful part of us, generally it is the least talked about be- cause it is hard to quantify your improvement and progress. Nor is it as evident as working with weights and seeing that muscle definition develop or doing aerobics and seeing improvement in miles on the treadmill or seeing your body become more flexible. Your improvement with mind-body training can be that you just feel better and are more relaxed and that life is flowing—it’s kind of hard to measure. After all, the goal - 185 - staying healthy in the fast lane of all this is to live a happy, purposeful life—one of service and self-fulfillment. Helping the Mind’s Biochemistry • Control blood sugar – Eat low-glycemic, whole, unprocessed foods (glycemic index ≤ 55, glycemicindex. Training Your Mind as You Would Train Your Body One of my favorite quotes to share with patients is to “train your mind as you would train your body for a marathon. Set a plan to train your mind in whatever discipline or disciplines feel right for you. And truthfully, there is probably a fourth: Read or listen to posi- tive things daily. Being continually thankful and living thankfully acknowledges and puts faith into action that there is a loving God or universal power. Some of the “magic” that comes from being thankful is that if your mind is full of thankfulness there is no room for negative thinking. You don’t have to try not to have negative thoughts; there just is no space for them in the thankful mind! Some believe that by the “Law of Attraction” you receive more of what you are thankful for. Since being thankful is a happier way to live than being nega- tive, you have nothing to lose by practicing thankfulness and won- derful things to gain. Start by just committing to being thankful for a few minutes ev- ery morning and evening. Modern society provides so much for us to do that our minds find it difficult to be “empty” to receive or “hear” guidance from within. For me, a transformational practice for the last couple of years has been just sitting still for fifteen to thirty minutes each day— physically still. I don’t try to meditate or empty my mind of thoughts; I just accept the thoughts that come and don’t worry about them. I would have so many thoughts in my mind and would “fight” to get them out of my mind.
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Accordingly, certain and any symptoms that emerge, such as respiratory people’s immune systems are genetically primed to distress. Reading retardation may reflect mental disability, recombinant A person with a new combination cultural deprivation, or learning disability. Key features of recombination include the point-to-point associa- receptor 1 In cell biology, a structure on the sur- tion of paired chromosomes (synapsis), followed by face of a cell or inside a cell that selectively receives the visible exchange of segments (crossing over) at and binds a specific substance. There are two types of recessive diseases—autosomal recessive and X- rectal cancer See cancer, rectal. The rectum stores solid waste until it leaves the orblindness, deuteranopia, and Daltonism. In rectus abdominis A large muscle in the front of reduction division, the chromosome number is the abdomen that assists in regular breathing move- reduced from diploid (46 chromosomes) to haploid ments, supports the muscles of the spine while a (23 chromosomes). Also known as first meiotic divi- person lifts something, and keeps the intestines and sion and first meiosis. Reed-Sternberg cell A type of cell that is seen recuperate To recover health and strength. If one gets a referral to recurrence The return of a sign, symptom, or ophthalmology, for example, the person is being disease after a remission. The recur in that family, affecting another person or term referral can pertain both to the act of sending persons. For example, a recurrent fever is a fever that has referred pain Pain felt at a site other than where returned after an intermission, a recrudescent fever. For example, the recurrent respiratory papillomatosis See corneal reflex is the blink that occurs upon irritation of the eye. Reflex between laboratories, but is generally in the range sympathetic dystrophy syndrome is associated with of 4. Red cell count can be varying degrees of sweating, warmth and/or cool- expressed in international units as (4. Refractive who has suffered an illness or injury restore lost errors include nearsightedness (myopia), farsight- skills and so regain maximum self-sufficiency. Lenses can be example, rehabilitation work after a stroke may used to control the amount of refraction and correct help the patient walk and speak clearly again. Refsum disease A genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of the fatty acid phytanic acid. For example, a transplanted kid- caused by damage to the cerebellar portion of the ney may be rejected. For example, after an injury, the liver often administered during abdominal surgery to has the capacity to regenerate. A low-salt diet is one type of dietary nancy that facilitates the birth process by causing a regimen. Relaxin also inhibits contractions of the uterus and may play a role in determining the regional lymphadenitis See cat scratch fever. A registry is release, carpal tunnel See carpal tunnel usually organized so that the data in it can be ana- release. For example, analysis of data in a tumor reg- istry maintained at a hospital may show a rise in lung rem In radiation, an international unit of X-ray or cancer among women. These periods occur at intervals of 1 to 2 hours and can vary in regurgitation A backward flowing. A remission can be ate goal is to quickly open blocked arteries and temporary or permanent. Early reperfusion min- imizes the extent of heart muscle damage and pre- remission induction chemotherapy See serves the pumping function of the heart. One of carried out from a great distance using computer the best-known repetitive stress injuries is carpal and robotic technology. For example, supermarket checkers, assembly-line workers, typ- renal cancer is cancer of the kidneys. Common causes of renal artery stenosis include atherosclerosis and thicken- replication A turning back, repetition, duplica- ing of the muscular wall (fibromuscular dysplasia) tion, or reproduction. Reproduction need not be sexual; for example, renal cell carcinoma See cancer, renal cell. This idea has stirred great controversy and has met with almost uniform disapproval. Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome See hereditary research, controlled A study that compares hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Board certification in all near drowning, heart failure, severe infection, and medical and surgical specialties requires the satis- extreme obesity. In practice, the respiratory rate is usually determined resistance Opposition to something, or the abil- by counting the number of times the chest rises or ity to withstand something. The aim of measuring respiratory forms of the staphylococcus bacterium are resistant rate is to determine whether the respirations are to treatment with antibiotics. Resolution may annual community outbreaks, often lasting 4 to 6 range from low to high. For having a continuous, solid level of antibodies example, when bone is surgically reshaped, it against the virus. Respiratory failure occurs because of the failure of the exchange of oxygen and carbon restless leg syndrome An uncomfortable dioxide in tiny air sacs in the lung (alveoli), failure (creeping, crawling, tingling, pulling, twitching, of the brain centers that control breathing, or fail- tearing, aching, throbbing, prickling, or grabbing) ure of the muscles required to expand the lungs that sensation in the calves that occurs while sitting or can cause respiratory failure. The result is an uncontrollable ical conditions can lead to respiratory failure, urge to relieve the uncomfortable sensation by including asthma, emphysema, chronic obstructive moving the legs. The leg pain typically eases medication, such as cyclosporine, chlorambucil, and with motion of the legs and becomes more notice- cyclophosphamide. A small area called the macula in the retina contains special retinoblastoma A malignant eye tumor usually light-sensitive cells that allow clear perception and seen in children, that arises in cells in the develop- central vision. The retina is filled with tiny blood ing retina that contain cancer-predisposing muta- vessels. The sporadic form of retina has torn, the vitreous liquid can pass through retinoblastoma has later onset and typically leads to the tear and accumulate behind the retina. Retinal vasculitis ranges in sever- often requires removal of the eye (enucleation). Retinal vasculitis by itself is painless, but many of the diseases that cause it can also cause retinoic acid syndrome A disorder due to the painful inflammation elsewhere, such as in the joints.