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There is also a rare association between infection in the foetus in early pregnancy and miscarriage generic venlafaxine 37.5mg on-line anxiety symptoms teenagers. Precautions: Preventive measures include strict hand washing especially after contact with respiratory secretions (e cost of venlafaxine anxiety 9gag. People discount 150mg venlafaxine otc anxiety xiphoid process, especially pregnant women or those with chronic red blood cell disorders or impaired immunity purchase cheap venlafaxine on-line anxiety symptoms centre, with sick children at home should wash hands frequently and avoid sharing eating/drinking utensils. Exclusion: An affected staff member or pupil need not be excluded because he/she is no longer infectious by the time the rash occurs. Pregnant Tetanus (Lockjaw) women who are occupationally exposed to children under Tetanus (‘lock-jaw’) is a disease that causes painful muscle 6 have a slightly increased infection risk, especially in the spasm, convulsions and diffculty in breathing. The bacteria that cause tetanus are commonly found pregnant women who have contact with children at home in the soil. During outbreak periods current evidence does not Precautions: Pupils should be appropriately immunised. However, individual risk assessment should consider the following when deciding on exclusion from work: Resources: Useful information on tetanus can be found • Is the outbreak laboratory confrmed and ongoing at http://www. Public health doctors will undertake a detailed risk assessment and offer screening to anyone identifed as a close contact. Screening in a school is generally carried out to fnd out if any others have become infected. Precautions: Transmission from young children to adults is extremely rare but adults may infect children. Exclusion: Recommendations on exclusion depend on the particulars of each case, e. Bacterial They may beneft from medical treatment such as meningitis is less common but usually more serious application of medications or freezing. Warts are common, than viral meningitis and needs urgent treatment with and most people will acquire them at some time in their antibiotics. There is little beneft in covering them for swimming require antibiotic treatment. Precautions: Environmental cleaning, particularly of Precautions: Although the risk of acquiring viral swimming pools and shower or changing rooms, is meningitis is small it is sensible to take precautions. Pupils should not share towels, most important protection against the viruses that cause shoes or socks with someone who has a verruca. Frequent hand washing staff with verrucae should wear pool shoes or fip-fops in especially after contact with secretions from the nose or changing rooms and showers. Exclusions: Staff or pupils with the disease will usually be too ill to attend school. The cough becomes not serious or dangerous but causes itching around the worse and the characteristic ‘whoop’ may develop. Because of this itching Coughing spasms are frequently worse at night and may the affected child will scratch his/her bottom, picking up be associated with vomiting. This infection can cause the eggs under the fngernails and pass them on to the serious complications especially in very young children. It spreads easily, particularly in the early via the chemist or obtained via the doctor - all members stages while the illness is still mild. A shower (rather than a make the infection less severe if it is started early, before bath) in the morning will remove any eggs laid around the coughing fts begin. Precautions: Prevention is by strict attention to personal Precautions: Pupils should be appropriately immunised, hygiene. Washing hands before eating and after going which includes a booster dose at age 4-5 years and a to the toilet is essential with supervision by an adult if second low-dose booster at age 11-14 years. Pregnant women are recommended to have a booster pertussis vaccine during every pregnancy. Frequent hand washing especially after contact with secretions from the nose or throat is important to reduce spread of infection. Exclusion: Staff or pupils who develop pertussis should stay at home until they have had 5 days of appropriate antibiotic treatment or for 21 days from onset of illness if no antibiotic treatment. If a school’s water is supplied from a private well or small private group water scheme it is important that the school is sure that the quality of the water is satisfactory. The supply must be registered with the Local Authority and the water must meet the quality standards as laid out in these regulations. Wells draw water from groundwater that can become polluted by chemicals and germs such as E coli and Cryptosporidium. Water that changes in colour after heavy rainfall may indicate a signifcant risk of contamination. However, water can become polluted without any obvious change in taste, smell or colour. In addition wells must be physically protected from contamination, for example, from surface water run- off, animal or human effuent, fertilizer, pesticides, or other chemicals. If a school has any concerns about the quality of their water supply or queries about testing, treatment, or maintenance they should contact their local Environmental Health Offcer or Local Authority. If a case appears in your school the letters may help to provide information for parents and to allay anxiety Sample notifcation letters to parents for the following conditions are available: 1. If your child has not had chickenpox before it is quite likely that he/she will catch it. Fever and cold symptoms are often the frst signs of illness and are followed by the appearance of the typical rash. The rash starts as small pink bumps, often around the neck, ears, back and stomach. These develop a little water blister, which in turn becomes yellow and oozy and ultimately crusty as it dries. The rash spreads outwards to involve the whole body fnally involving the lower arms and legs. In children it is usually a relatively mild illness however occasionally complications develop. Chickenpox can be a devastating infection in people with a seriously weakened immune system (e. In adults, chickenpox is a much more signifcant illness than in children and there is a greater risk of complications developing. Chickenpox in pregnancy may cause severe illness and, in the early stages of pregnancy, may result in abnormalities in the baby. If your child is normally healthy, chickenpox is likely to be a relatively mild illness and no specifc precautions are necessary. The infected person can spread infection for up to three days before the rash appears and until the last pox is crusted and dry. If you suspect chickenpox, do not bring the child into a crowded surgery waiting room, as this may only spread the infection further. Do not use aspirin or any products that contain aspirin to control fever if your child has chicken pox, as this has been associated with the development of a rare but serious disease called Reye’s syndrome. Many children with chickenpox are too sick to attend school and are more comfortable at home.

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Reduce mosquito breeding habitat: Reduce the number of isolated order venlafaxine with visa anxiety symptoms jittery, stagnant buy generic venlafaxine 37.5mg line anxiety symptoms gastro, shallow (5-7 cm deep) areas buy venlafaxine pills in toronto anxiety symptoms on one side of body. Construct a vegetation buffer between the adjacent land and the wetland to filter nutrients and sediments buy 37.5 mg venlafaxine overnight delivery anxiety ulcer. Install fences to keep livestock from entering the wetland to reduce nutrient-loading and sedimentation problems. In ornamental/managed ponds: Add a waterfall, or install an aerating pump, to keep water moving and reduce mosquito larvae. Keep the surface of the water clear of free-floating vegetation and debris during times of peak mosquito activity. Chemical control It may be necessary to use alternative mosquito control measures if the above are not possible or ineffective. The environmental impact of vector control measures should be evaluated and appropriate approvals should be granted before undertaken. This method is deemed least damaging to non-target wildlife and should be used before adulticides. During periods of flooding, the number and extent of breeding sites is usually too high for larvicidal measures to be feasible. Open marsh water management Control mosquitoes by introducing their natural predators to areas of tidal marsh using a system of pools connected by radial ditches. Fish feed on mosquitoes during high tide, then retreat to sumps or reservoirs at low tide. Environmental management – adapting behaviour of people and animals People: Wear light coloured clothing which covers arms and legs. Use impregnated mosquito netting when sleeping outdoors or in an open unscreened structure. Avoid physical exertion, and use colognes and perfumes sparingly as these may attract mosquitoes. Note that some repellents cause harm to wildlife species, particularly amphibians. Use screened housing with measures to eliminate mosquitoes from inside structures. Alter flow rate and water levels to disturb snail habitats and their food sources: Include ‘v’ shaped banks in irrigation channels. Remove vegetation/silt in channels to avoid a drop in velocity which may lead to further vegetation growth and good habitat for snails. Note that personnel involved in the manual removal of vegetation are increasing their exposure to snails. Flow rate should only be addressed with knowledge of the ecology of the snail in question e. Borrow-pits, small pools and ponds serving no special purpose (for humans, wildlife or livestock) may be drained to eliminate breeding sites. Expose snail habitat: Remove littoral vegetation from the sides of canals feeding irrigation projects to expose snail habitat. Thought should be given to downstream conditions and the potential for the liberated snails to recolonise new habitat. Where possible dry out littoral zones to strand snail populations, however take into account the specific ecology and the resilience of the target species. Chemical control Use of molluscicides may cause environmental damage and should be avoided. Applications are usually restricted to places frequently used by people for swimming, bathing etc. Environmental management – adapting behaviour of people and animals People: Where possible, avoid new human settlements near infested wetlands. It is safest to consider all freshwater bodies in endemic areas as potential transmission sites if sites otherwise not identified. For agricultural workers at constant risk of infection, periodic examination and treatment may be the most feasible approach to disease control. A clean water supply and improved sanitation (including on board boats) must be provided to stop human excrement entering wetlands. This is especially important for species that parasitise animal, livestock and human hosts. Snail fever integrated control and prevention project in Tongxing Village of Wucheng Township, Yongxiu County of Jiangxi Province, P. Summary Disease issue or problem: Snail fever / Schistosomiasis interruption of cattle-parasite-cycle by means of permanent stabling of cattle (long-term); awareness raising campaign by carrying out publicity and Action taken: education activities; assessment of snail host spatial distribution; cattle examination and medical treatment. The spread of snail fever in the Tongxing Village controlled Outcomes: and prevented effectively, which saves about 30. Participatory approach – stable reconstruction according to local What went well: farmers’ needs. Project funded by German Embassy Small Grant and additional contributions from local government on different levels. Background The project area is situated in the Tongxing Village of Wucheng Township, located in the Yongxiu County of Jiangxi Province, China. The Wucheng Township lies at the lakeshore of Poyang Lake, covering a total area 2 2 of 368 km , with 47 km consisting of grasslands infested with snail fever. The highest rates of infection with snail fever in the Wucheng population occurred in 1998 with more than 15% of the total population being infected; 10% of these suffered from terminal-stage snail fever. The highly endemic situation for snail fever is explained by the extensive cattle raising on infested wetlands, maintaining a permanent snail-fever cycle among livestock. As snail fever can equally infect cattle and human beings, the ecological conditions for human infection with snail fever are, therefore, particularly hazardous throughout the entire township. Based on the abundant, grass-covered wetlands, cattle-breeding has become a major activity for local livelihoods. Therefore, the level of infection with snail fever remained alarmingly elevated, seriously hampering local economic development. Indeed, snail-fever was conceived as being a major cause for persisting poverty in the village. The recent governmental programme of integrated control of snail fever, carried out in the Yongxiu County, prioritises preventative and sanitary measures combined with the development of secure livelihoods and the provisioning of preventive medical and veterinary services. It is well understood by villagers that the cattle-parasite cycle has to be interrupted in order to sustainably reduce the environmental risks of infection with snail fever. One principal intervention strategy is modifying the ongoing practice of extensive livestock breeding aiming at maintaining cattle outside snail fever infected areas (i. Before the project started, 40 stables for the seasonal stabling of water-buffalos Bubalus bubalis already existed in the Paitou sub-village of Tongxing, but most of the stables had collapsed or were damaged. Therefore, they were not suitable for permanently keeping cattle outside the wetlands. The villagers wanted to reconstruct the stables and adapt them for permanent stabling. Activities Reconstructing existing stables: the court, the access-ways, and the interior of the stables cleaned up and stabilised; 12 collapsed stables and 28 damaged stables repaired, including their roofs and cracked walls.

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We should let the cancer patient know that chemotherapy is still a very good treatment and there are several hormonal treatments purchase venlafaxine australia anxiety wikipedia, surgery and so on available generic 37.5 mg venlafaxine free shipping anxiety medication side effects, because otherwise we are giving very bad information and giving a hope that cannot be satisfed buy venlafaxine us anxiety symptoms jittery. A patient should discount venlafaxine 37.5 mg on line anxiety keeping me awake, frst of all, be able to learn the results of tissue analysis by himself/herself or from the general practitioner, and secondly, the patient should have the right to give the specimen under the condition that a piece of the specimen has to be kept for future need. I was surprised by the survey results because, working with patients, I had envisaged different answers to the questions. Almost all the patients, 91%, would allow a hospital to retain a tumour sample for future research. This gene mutation analysis will hopefully be able to select specifc patients who later, after failure of second- or third-line therapy, are candidates for treatment with a newly available treatment. Patients should be aware that participating in specifc clinical trials is very important both for the individual patient and for society. They should be aware that a biopsy or a blood sample will make a difference; it will allow them to have more information that can, if used in the right way, be important in defning now, and increasingly in the future, which is the best treatment approach for them. The treatment is selected to target different molecular alterations that appear in tumours located in the same organ (lung). In the left panel, we can see three groups of patients with lung, colorectal and breast cancers. Symbols (blue triangle, green star, red cross, and orange circle) denote different genomic aberrations detected in their tumour samples. Clinical trials are conducted on specifc tumour types, with patients undergoing molecular profling and then being matched to specifc drugs on the basis of molecular aberrations identifed in their tumour samples. In the right panel, we can see patients, all with primary tumour located in same organ (lung), in whom the treatment is selected to target specifc molecular aberrations. The treatment is selected to target the same molecular alteration which appears in tumours in different organs. In the left panel, we can see three groups of patients with lung, colorectal and breast cancers. Symbols (blue triangle, green star, red cross, and orange circle) denote different genomic aberrations detected in their tumour samples. Clinical trials are conducted to evaluate matching of drugs to specifc molecular aberrations across different tumour types, with patients undergoing molecular profling and then being matched to specifc drugs on the basis of molecular aberrations identifed in their tumour samples. In the right panel, we can see patients with tumours, but now located in different organs, and in whom the treatment is selected to target specifc molecular aberrations, regardless of the primary site of the tumour. Our growing body of knowledge is increasing the awareness that we must live taking care of our lives. Our increased understanding of the genetic basis of disease has helped us to realise how important it is that we take good care of our bodies. Several lines of research are now ongoing to identify the genetic weaknesses and the predispositions of each individual to develop cancers. This means that, through advances in genetic techniques, it will become possible to identify those people who are more likely to develop cancers and therefore also to personalise their lifestyle according to their genetic features. However, it may be that some cancers will not be affected by lifestyle changes and healthy living and will not be capable of being prevented, and these will present even further challenges to the scientifc community. Personalised Cancer Care Question from Selma Schimmel: “How do we unify patient advocate efforts? We need to promote awareness and public understanding of this paradigm shift that cancer research is global in nature. So how do we take the global message forward, knowing that the internet allows patients all over the world to read common information, that research doesn’t happen in a vacuum and the tissue that’s collected in Hamburg may have an impact on a cancer centre in Rochester? For many years we have said that care should be patient-centric and clinical decisions should be tailored not only to patients’ genetic makeup but also their preferences, physical well-being and social circumstances. Personalised medicine – the development of drugs that are targeted to a specifc mutation – represents an important scientifc development but unfortunately there has been much Editor,Cancer Worldmagazine hype surrounding this advance which in reality has only had a limited impact on cancer patients. This hype is creating unrealistic expectations about what personalised medicine can deliver for the vast majority of patients today, and strong advocacy efforts are required to convey clear messages about which cancers are currently benefting from personalised medicine but also the potential of targeted therapies for cancer patients. A key part of this message is that mutation testing should be performed by laboratories with certifed competence to carry out the test, since accuracy and consistency of results are important. Unfortunately, mutation testing, when there is a drug to target the mutation, is still not widely available to European citizens today. In some countries patients face important barriers in accessing targeted drugs even when there is a clear indication based on mutation testing. Another message that needs to be communicated is that targeted drug therapy complements and enhances treatment with surgery and radiotherapy and that cancer treatment has to be planned by a multidisciplinary team working within the context of properly organised cancer services. The fnal message to communicate is that improvements in cancer outcomes will come only when patients receive the right treatment (be it surgery, drugs or radiotherapy) from the right people at the right time. The right people are competent health professionals who have both experience and specialist training in cancer. From the patient side, personalised medicine will bring better treatments, while at the same time creating a major shift in healthcare systems. The meaning of personalised medicine is totally obscure for the lay public, patients and often for politicians and policy makers. It is important to acknowledge that not in every place where cancer patients receive treatment is the best treatment available. This is the critical point for the patient so as to ensure that the patient is not over-treated or under-treated. From an economic perspective, with increased targeted treatments there will be a reduced risk of expensive treatments being used on patients who will not be responsive, so offering more value for healthcare and offering benefts to patients, society and healthcare systems in the long run. Changes will be necessary in the way medicines are developed, regulated and rewarded. Greater collaboration will be needed across a wide range of actors in healthcare, in particular with the patients. This was a key message that the cancer patient community has conveyed within the European Alliance for Personalised Medicine stakeholder initiative. In particular, in the area of research, we have called for: • More multidisciplinary research, with closer collaboration between drug and diagnostic developers, clinicians, biologists, biostatisticians and information and communications technologists. All in all, the regulatory environment must allow every patient access to personalised medicine. Research must be increased and fndings that will facilitate personalised medicine co-ordinated. In this context, new approaches to reimbursement are needed to ensure that new treatments can become accessible for patients. In terms of infrastructure, a European Institute should be created for translating the laboratory information into medicine. Additionally, continuous training of healthcare professionals is needed and this has to be done through the development of guidelines which must become a living document so as to respond to technological and scientifc changes that occur regularly.

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Poor people and those with less education are more likely to maintain risk behaviour for several reasons order venlafaxine cheap anxiety chest pain. These include inequality of opportuni- ties purchase venlafaxine with paypal anxiety problems, such as general education purchase venlafaxine 75 mg with amex anxiety relaxation techniques; psychosocial stress order venlafaxine online now anxiety symptoms skin rash; limited choice of consumption patterns; inadequate access to health care and health education; and vulnerability to the adverse effects of globalization. Aggressive marketing of harmful products, such as tobacco, sustain the demand for these products among those who have fewer opportunities to substitute unhealthy habits with healthier and often more expensive options. It is likely that several factors contribute to this relationship, but one explanation is that “energy-dense” foods, such as fried or processed foods, tend to cost less on a per-calorie basis when compared with fresh fruit and vegetables (20). Many people live in areas that cause them to be concerned for their safety, thereby reducing opportunities for outdoor physical activities. People living in disadvantaged communities marked by sprawling development are likely to walk less and weigh The United Republic of Tanzania more than others. People from deprived communities suffer more from demonstrates a mixed picture with cardiovascular diseases than residents of more affluent communities, regard to risk factors. Inadequate access to good-quality health services, including diagnostic This finding supports the idea that and clinical prevention services, is a significant cause of the social as countries develop economically, and economic inequalities in the burden of chronic diseases. The poor different risk factors affect differ- face several health-care barriers including financial constraints, lack ent social and economic classes at of proximity and/or availability of transport to health-care centres, and different rates (19). Some people are unable to afford out-of-pocket charges for health care and might forfeit their wages by missing work. Transport costs can also prevent people from seeking care, especially those who must travel long distances to health centres. Even when health services are subsidized by the government or pro- vided free in low and middle income countries, it is the wealthier who gain more from such services. Findings from South Africa, for example, showed that among people with high blood pressure, the wealthiest 30% of the population was more than twice as likely to have received treatment as the poorest 40% (26). The poor and marginalized are often confronted with insufficient respon- siveness from the health-care system. Communication barriers may significantly decrease effective access to health services and inhibit the degree to which a patient can benefit from such services. Migrants, for In 1994, the main obstacle to obtain- example, often face language and other cultural barriers. Almost Social inequality, poverty and inequitable access to resources, including 75% of people who could not obtain health care, result in a high burden of chronic diseases among women medicines reported unavailability as worldwide, particularly very poor women. However, In general, women tend to live longer with chronic disease than men, since then the situation has changed though they are often in poor health. The costs associated with health dramatically: availability of medi- care, including user fees, are a barrier to women’s use of services. By 2000, 65–70% of people who unless there is agreement from senior members (whether male or female) could not obtain medicines reported of the household. Women’s workload in the home and their caregiving unaffordability as the main reason, roles when other family members are ill are also significant factors in while unavailability accounted for delaying decisions to seek treatment. Population-based surveys of blindness in Africa, Asia and many high income countries suggest that women account for 65% of all blind people world- wide. Cataract blindness could be reduced by about 13% if women received cataract surgery at the same rate as men. The decision to delay treat- ment is often influenced by the cost of the surgery, inability to travel to a surgical facility, differences in the perceived value of surgery (cataract is often viewed as an inevitable consequence of ageing and women are less likely to experience support within the family to seek care), and lack of access to health information (28). This section describes how chronic diseases cause poverty and draw individuals and their families into a downward spiral of worsening disease and impoverishment. In Bangladesh, for example, of those households that moved into the status “always poor”, all reported death or severe disabling diseases as one of the In Jamaica 59% of people with main causes. Existing knowledge underestimates the implications of chronic avoided some medical treatment as diseases for poverty and the potential that chronic disease prevention a result (30). Ongoing health care-related expenses for chronic diseases are a major problem for many poor people. Acute chronic disease-related events – such as a heart attack or stroke – can People in India with diabetes spend be disastrously expensive, and are so for millions of people. The poorest die without treatment, or to seek treatment and push their family into people – those who can least afford poverty. Those who suffer from long-standing chronic diseases are in the cost – spend the greatest pro- the worst situation, because the costs of medical care are incurred over portion of their income on medical a long period of time (34). On average, they spend 25% of their annual income on private care, compared with 4% in high income groups (31). Spending money on tobacco deprives people of education opportunities that could help lift them out of poverty and also leads to greater health-care costs. Indirect costs on food instead, saving the lives of 350 include: children under the age of five years each day. The poorest households in Bangla- » reduction in income owing to lost productivity from illness or death; desh spend almost 10 times as much on » the cost of adult household members caring for those who are ill; tobacco as on education (37). However, in low and middle users but belong to households that use income countries disability insurance systems are either underdeveloped tobacco (38). In the United Kingdom, the average cost of monthly health insurance pre- The illness of a main income earner in low and middle income countries miums for a 35-year-old female smoker significantly reduces overall household income. People who have chronic is 65% higher than the cost for a non- diseases are not fully able to compensate for income lost during periods smoker. Male smokers pay 70% higher of illness when they are in relatively good health (36). Households often sell their possessions to cover lost income and health-care costs. In the short term, this might help poor households to cope with urgent medical costs, but in the long term it has a nega- tive effect: the selling of productive assets – property that produces income – increases the vulnerability of households and drives them into poverty. Such changes in the investment pattern of households are more likely to occur when chronic diseases require long-term, costly treatment (36). But one thing she clearly remembers is that each time she returned home without receiving adequate treatment and care. Name Maria Saloniki Today, this livestock keeper and mother of 10 children is Age 60 Country United Republic fighting for her life at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute in Dar of Tanzania es Salaam. It took Maria more than three years to discover the Diagnosis Breast cancer words to describe her pain – breast cancer – and to receive the treatment she desperately needs. In fact, between these first symptoms and chemotherapy treatment, Maria was prescribed herb ointments on several occasions, has been on antibiotics twice and heard from more than one health professional that they couldn’t do anything for her. The 60-year-old even travelled to Nairobi, Kenya to seek treatment, but it wasn’t until later, in Dar es Salaam, that a biopsy revealed her disease. Maria’s story is sadly common in the understaffed and poorly equipped hospital ward she shares with 30 other cancer patients. Her husband, who now works day and night to pay for her medicine and feed their children, can’t afford both the treatment costs and the bus fare to come and visit her. To compensate for the lost productivity of a sick or disabled adult, children are often removed from school; this deprives them of the opportunity to study and gain qualifications.

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Urea has also been proven to be an extraordinary antibacterial and anti-viral agent buy venlafaxine 75 mg without prescription anxiety depression symptoms, and is one of the best natural diuretics ever discovered buy venlafaxine now anxiety symptoms joint pain. These are a few more examples of commercial medical applications of urine and urea in use today: Ureaphil: diuretic made from urea 24 Urofollitropin: urine-extract fertility drug PureaSkin: urea cream for skin problems Amino-Cerv: urea cream used for cervical treatments Premarin: urine-extract estrogen supplement Panafil: urea/papain ointment for skin ulcers cheap venlafaxine 150 mg with visa anxiety xanax side effects, burns and infected wounds Urea was discovered and isolated as long ago as 1773 and is currently marketed in a variety of different drug forms discount venlafaxine 37.5mg line anxiety prayer. Medical researchers have also proven that urea is one of the best and only medically proven effective skin moisturizers in the world. In many years of laboratory studies researchers discovered that, unlike just about all other types of oil-based moisturizers that simply sit on the top layers of the skin and do nothing to improve water retention within skin cells (which gives skin its elasticity and wrinkle-free appearance), urea actually increases the water-binding capacity of the skin by opening skin layers for hydrogen bonding, which then attracts moisture to dry skin cells. So as surprising as it seems, urine and urea do have an amazing and voluminous history in both traditional and modem medicine. Herman, Clinical Professor of Urology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City, points out the general misconceptions regarding urine and its medical use: "Autouropathy (urine therapy) did flourish in many parts of the world and it continues to flourish today. If the blood should not be considered ‘unclean’, then the urine also should not be so considered. Actually, the listed constituents of human urine can be carefully checked and no items not found in human diet are found in it. Percentages differ, of course, but urinary constituents are valuable to human metabolism… " Look up urea in a medical dictionary. Uric acid, another ingredient of urine, is normally thought of as an undesirable waste product of the body that causes gout. But even uric acid has recently been found to have tremendous health-promoting and medical implications. Medical researchers at the University of California at Berkeley reported in 1982 that they have discovered that: Uric acid could be a defense against cancer and aging. It also destroys body-damaging chemicals called free radicals that are present in food, water and air and are considered to be a cause of cáncer and breakdowns in immune function. Uric acid could be one of the things that enable human beings to live so much longer than other mammals. Medical scientists study urine with tremendous intensity because, unlike the public, they know that it contains innumerable vital body nutrients and thousands of natural elements that control and regulate every function of the body The research book on urine published in 1975, Urinalysis in Clinical Laboratory Practice, stated that: "The magnitude of the attention which urine receives is attested to by a recent study which dealt with only the low-molecular weight constituents of human urine. This publication revealed that more than 1,000 technical and scientific papers, related only to low molecular weight substances in urine, appeared in the medical and scientific literatura in one (1) single year. It is now recognized that the urine contains thousands of compounds, and as new, more sensitive analytical tools evolve, it is quite certain that new constituents of urine will be recognized. As the research studies presented in Chapter Four illustrate, natural _ urine and simple urea have been used consistently and extensively by medical researchers and scientists over the entire course of the twentieth century and have been proven to be profoundly effective and comprehensive therapeutic medicines that even in their natural or basic forms can produce outstanding and amazing healing results. Many people might consider a synthetic or chemically altered form of urine, such as urokinase, the blood clot dissolver, as preferable to using it as a natural medicine. Just as nature produces no two people who are exactly the same, there are also no two urine samples in the world that contain exactly the same components. Your own urine contains elements that are specific to your body alone which are medicinally valuable ingredients tailormade to your own health disorders. Because your urine contains hundreds of elements that are manufactured by your body to deal with your personal, specific health conditions. Modem research and clinical studies have proven that the thousands of critical body chemicals and nutrients that end up in your individual urine reflect your individual body functions, and when reutilized, act as natural vaccines, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-cancer agents, hormone balancers, allergy relievers, etc. Another reason that many doctors have emphasized the use of the natural form of urine is that it does not produce side effects, whereas synthetic drugs and therapies all produce side effects, many of which are extremely dangerous. As an example, the urine-extract drug called urokinase, which is used to dissolve dangerous blood clots, can cause serious abnormal bleeding as a side effect; but natural urine itself (which contains measurable amounts of urokinase) has been used medicinally even in extremely large quantities without causing side effects. Urine therapy not only has dozens of successful research trials supporting it, but also thousands of success stories from people all over the world. As many people today have discovered, conventional medicine held no answers for either their chronic or acute illnesses and health disorders – but urine therapy did. Learning More About One of the Biggest Secrets in Medical History I realize that by now many of you are saying to yourselves, "All this information on the medical use of urine sounds fascinating, but can I really use this therapy at home? How would I get started, and how can I possibly get past my first fears and reluctance to try it for myself? Also, if you prefer, you can make an extremely diluted form of urine called a homeopathic urine preparation, which gives excellent results and contains no taste or color. Chapter 6 contains complete and detailed instructions that will answer all your questions, including howto get started, how to prepare homeopathic urine, etc. Also, make sure that you read the instructions in Chapter 6 before beginning the therapy. The use of urine in medicine is such a huge and previously untouched consumer subject that reading, organizing and compiling the pertinent information has presented quite a challenge. The first and second chapters have been a general introduction to the largely unknown medical uses of urine and its importance as a natural medicinal. Chapter 4 is an in-depth look at selected laboratory and clinical studies conducted by doctors and researchers on the medical applications and significance of urine therapy. Chapter 7 presents personal testimonials on specific disorders and disease conditions. In these days of anxiety and fear about health care, perhaps the most important thing for all of us to remember is that knowledge is our greatest strength and our best health insurance. The more we know about our bodies and how to use simple, safe remedies to correct diseases and chronic illnesses, the healthier and happier each one of us will be. The medicinal properties of urine are so comprehensive and so astounding, yet so easily accessible that it gives each one of us amazing personal power over our own health that we never even knew we possessed – the cost-free, natural healing power of our own perfect medicine. There are many reports that date back thousands of years, (see Chapter Five), which extol the virtues of urine both as a diagnostic tool and as a medicinal treatment for a wide variety of diseases, wounds and skin disorders. And yet today, even after nearly 100 years of consistent and authoritative modem medical research showing urine or urea to be one of the simplest, cheapest, most effective medicinal substances in existence, the vast majority of us, including even 32 our own doctors, still mistakenly believe that urine is nothing more than a body waste or a medical diagnostic tool. To really understand why the extensive medical use of urine is largely unknown and unpublicized today, we have to look more closely at the background and the history of modern medicine. Before the advent of modem medicines, there were few man-made drugs, and even fewer doctors to administer them -and, for most people, no money for to pay the doctors even when they were available. So people generally treated their illnesses with prayer and such common sense approaches as good food, rest and whatever substances they found in nature that were traditionally known to have medicinal qualities - things like simple herbs, plants, minerals, urine, etc. But throughout the known history of man and medicine, there has always been a type of "tagstaKm" going on between those who felt that nature was the best healer, and others who were convinced that man could intellectually devise healing techniques that would put Mother Nature to shame. Traditional 33 medical approaches seemed of little use against such plagues, and westerners in particular began to search science for methods of overcoming these diseases. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, science did discover man- made synthetic drugs like penicillin that seemed to prevent these killer plagues and other dangerous illnesses, and the age of modem synthetic medicine began. In some ways, it appeared that humanity had even overcome its dependence on God; as Robert Koch, who first discovered microbes commented, "In the nineteenth century, man lost his fear of God and gained a fear of microbes. Hippocrates combined both approaches in his practice and medical teachings — stressing that the physician must be skilled in Nature and understand the patient in relation to his or her food, drink, and occupation, as well as the effect each of these factors has on the others. Health was an equilibrium between the mind and body and the external world, disease a disruption of this natural harmony. Treatment involved creating the conditions in which the body could maintain and cure itself through its internal healing mechanisms. When disease did manifest itself, specific intervention would be applied, but natural cures such as dietary changes were preferred over drugs.

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