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B Approximately two-thirds of the serum cholesterol has a fatty acid esteriﬁed to the hydroxyl group of 65 purchase 130mg malegra dxt mastercard erectile dysfunction venous leak treatment. Which of the following reagents is used in the the third carbon atom of the cholesterol molecule malegra dxt 130 mg free shipping erectile dysfunction 42. All are free of interference from abnormal the esterase and oxidase enzymes in the reagent buy generic malegra dxt on line impotence drugs. The complex is Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological structurally similar to plasminogen and is thought to characteristics/Lipoproteins/1 promote coronary heart disease by interfering with 68 cheap 130mg malegra dxt with visa erectile dysfunction. Which type of dietary fatty acid is not associated the normal ﬁbrinolytic process. Monounsaturated cis fatty acids acids are not associated with increased production D. Which substrate concentration is needed to quantity of enzyme that: achieve zero-order conditions? Forms 1 μmol of product per liter Chemistry/Select reagents/Enzymes/3 Chemistry/Apply principles of basic laboratory procedures/Enzymes/1 Answers to Questions 1–5 2. Absorbance is monitored continuously for absorbance measurements to calculate the change 1 minute using a chart recorder in absorbance per unit time. Reﬂectance is measured from a xenon source absorbance per unit of time occurs only when the lamp pulsing at 60 Hz rate of the reaction is zero order (independent of substrate concentration). Enzyme activity is Chemistry/Apply principles of basic laboratory proportional to rate only under zero-order conditions. Which of the following statements regarding reducing the time required to reach equilibrium. Te enzyme shifts the equilibrium of the reaction equilibrium will be the same with or without the to the right enzyme. Te enzyme increases the rate of the reaction metastable intermediate, the enzyme substrate D. Enzymes do not alter the free energy or reactants and products direction of a reaction. Competitive inhibitors bind to Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological the active site where the enzyme binds substrate and characteristics/Enzymes/1 are overcome by increasing the substrate concentration. A A zero-order reaction rate is independent of substrate reaction concentration because there is suﬃcient substrate to B. V = Vmax × [S]/Km + [S] where energy to occur spontaneously V = velocity, Vmax = maximum velocity, [S] = substrate C. An enzyme’s natural substrate has the highest K concentration, and Km = substrate concentration m D. V = Vmax × [S]/[S] = Vmax × [S]° or m velocity approaches maximum and is independent Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological of substrate concentration. A A coenzyme is an organic molecule required for full for activity enzyme activity. Cofactors are as tightly bound to the enzyme as that is tightly bound to the apoenzyme and is prosthetic groups required for activity. Chemistry/Apply fundamental biological Consequently, patients with low levels of pyridoxal- characteristics/Enzymes/2 5´-phosphate (P-5´-P) (vitamin B6 deﬁciency) may 7. Which of the following statements about have reduced transaminase activity in vitro. This rate will be proportional achieve zero-order kinetics to enzyme activity when substrate is in excess. Rate is proportional to substrate concentration in the enzyme is present in excess, the initial reaction a zero-order reaction rate will be proportional to substrate concentration. Accumulation of the product increases the This condition, called a ﬁrst-order reaction, is needed reaction rate when the enzyme is used as a reagent to measure a Chemistry/Apply principles of basic laboratory speciﬁc analyte. Te increase in the level of serum enzymes used to increased by necrosis, altered permeability, secretion, detect cholestatic liver disease is caused mainly by: or synthesis. Enzyme release from dead cells perfusion, enzyme half-life, molecular size, and B. Decreased perfusion of the tissue γ-glutamyltransferase, are produced and secreted at a D. Increased production and secretion by cells greater rate in obstructive liver disease. D No enzyme is truly tissue speciﬁc and diagnostic processes/Enzymes/2 accuracy depends upon recognizing changes in plasma 9. Which of the following enzymes is considered levels that characterize diﬀerent diseases. Te lactate-to-pyruvate reaction is optimized at The pH optimum for the forward reaction is pH 7. Which condition produces the highest elevation myocardial infarction, necrotic liver disease, and of serum lactate dehydrogenase? Smallest elevations are seen Chemistry/Correlate clinical and laboratory in obstructive jaundice and highest in hepatic data/Lactate dehydrogenase/2 carcinoma and toxic hepatitis, where levels can reach 10-fold the upper reference limit. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase ﬂuid is usually: in chest ﬂuid is often caused by lung malignancy, A. Use of plasma collected in heparin Chemistry/Apply knowledge to recognize sources of error/Lactate dehydrogenase/3 266 Chapter 5 | Clinical Chemistry 18. Block the oxidation of glutathione can occur when adenylate kinase is present in the C. C When a competitive inhibitor is present in the serum, on an automated analyzer using an optimized a dilution of the sample will cause an increase in the Oliver–Rosalki method gives an error ﬂag reaction rate by reducing the concentration of the indicating substrate depletion. An error has been made in calculating the enzyme activity of one of the two dilutions Chemistry/Apply knowledge to recognize sources of error/Creatine kinase/3 5. What is the stable at room temperature for about 4 hours and up best course of action and the reason for it? C Serum myoglobin becomes abnormal within injections 1–2 hours after an acute myocardial infarction C. Te presence of increased TnI as muscular dystrophy, there is a persistent elevation D. Which statement best describes the clinical utility dystrophy, malignant hyperthermia, or crush of plasma or serum myoglobin? The upper limit of but is more sensitive normal is approximately 90 μg/L for males and 75 μg/L D. Chemistry/Evaluate laboratory data to recognize health However, speciﬁcity is approximately 75%–85% owing and disease states/Cardiac markers/2 to skeletal muscle injury or renal insuﬃciency. A value above the cutoﬀ returns to normal in 8 hours must be conﬁrmed using a cardiac speciﬁc assay such B. Abnormal within 2 hours; peaks within within 1–2 hours, peaks within 8–12 hours and 12 hours; returns to normal in 36 hours returns to normal within 36 hours.
Radio Talk (quoted in Doctor’s Legacy) Quoted in The Great Doctors—A Biographical History of Medicine p generic 130 mg malegra dxt with amex erectile dysfunction treatments herbal. Ltd order malegra dxt no prescription erectile dysfunction causes in young males, ) British reformer Statistics are like women; mirrors of purest You cannot legislate a new layer of cortical gray virtue and truth cost of malegra dxt impotence after 50, or like whores to use as one matter into malegra dxt 130mg mastercard erectile dysfunction at age 64, or a cirrhosed liver out of, a man. Little, learn more in a year than by abstract reasoning in Brown and Company, Boston () an age. Give the worker the right to work as he is healthy, Atrocis, nec Descipti Prius, Morbi Historia transl. A good Doctor can foresee the fatal outcome Attributed of an incurable illness, when he cannot help, the experienced Doctor will take care not to Sir William Blackstone ‒ aggravate the sick person’s malady by tiring English jurist and injurious efforts; and in an impossible case he will not frustrate himself further with Mala praxis is a great misdemeanor and offence at ineffective solicitude. The Mental Traveller We are convinced that the only genuine medical insurance for this country lies in making the beneﬁts of science available to all practitioners Sir John Bland-Sutton ‒ and to all patients. President of the Royal College of Surgeons of England Foreword to Medial Research, A Mid-century Survey I divided my life into three parts: in the ﬁrst I learned my profession, in the second I taught it, in the third I enjoy it. Book of Common Prayer The Story of a Surgeon Man that is born of woman, hath but a short time to live. The most dangerous items in a surgical operation Burial of the Dead were the instruments and the surgeon’s ﬁngers. Little, It is extremely difﬁcult for a physician who puts Brown and Company, Boston () too much trust in what he reads to form a proper decision from what he sees. Giovanni Boccaccio ‒ Italian writer To the cure of this disease, neither the knowledge of George Borrow ‒ medicine nor the power of drugs was of any effect, English author whether because the disease was itself fatal or If you must commit suicide, always contrive because the physicians, whose number was to do it as decorously as possible; the decencies, increased by quacks and woman pretenders, could whether of life or of death, should never be lost discover neither cause nor cure, and so few escaped. Independent October () Richard Bright ‒ William Boyd ‒ English physician, Guy’s Hospital, London British-born Canadian pathologist, Toronto To connect accurate and faithful observations Of all the ailments which may blow out life’s little after death with symptoms displayed during life candle, heart disease is the chief. Bradley ‒ Describing a test for nephritis in Professor of Poetry, Oxford, England Research, though toilsome, is easy; imaginative Anthelme Brillat-Savarin ‒ vision, though delightful, is difﬁcult. French gastronome Oxford Lectures on Poetry, ‘Shakespeare’s Theatre and Audience’ Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you what you are. Brahmanic saying La Physiologie du Goût () In illness the physician is a father; in convalescence, a friend; when health is restored, Edouard Brissaud ‒ he is a guardian. Russell, Lord Brain A symptom that cannot be simulated cannot be a ‒ symptom of hysteria. British neurologist Attributed In the post-mortem room we witness the ﬁnal result of disease, the failure of the body to solve its problems, and there is an obvious Paul Broca ‒ limit to what one can learn about normal business French surgeon and anthropologist transactions from even a daily visit to the Private practice and marriage—those twin bankruptcy court. Canadian Medical Association Journal : () Letter, April () Freud’s discovery of unconscious motivation, and the importance of the experiences of early A. Gerard Brom ‒ infancy for the subsequent development of the personality, has profoundly inﬂuenced our It is with coarctation surgery as with love: rather conception of human nature, and had lasting easy to do but difﬁcult to understand. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery : () Doctors Past and Present ‘The Doctor’s Place in Society’ () The doctor occupies a seat in the front row of the Jacob Bronowski ‒ stalls of the human drama, and is constantly Polish-born British biologist and broadcaster watching, and even intervening in, the tragedies, At bottom, the society of scientists is more comedies and tragi-comedies which form the raw important than their discoveries. Symptoms and Signs in Tropical Medicine In: Manson’s I do not believe that any man fears to be dead, but Tropical Diseases (th edn), G. Saunders () An Essay on Death François Joseph Victor Broussais The ancient Inhabitants of this Island were less troubled with Coughs when they went naked, and ‒ slept in Caves and Woods, than Men now in Paris physician and protagonist of the erroneous Chambers and Feather beds. What determines the feel not themselves dying, and therefore still hope difference between particular diseases is nothing but to live. Ltd () No one should approach the temple of science with the soul of a money changer. Austrian physiologist Journal of Bacteriology : () Teleology is a lady without whom no biologist can live. Edinburgh physician and author Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital : () It is not a case we are treating; it is a living, palpitating, alas, too often suffering fellow creature. Jean de La Bruyère ‒ Lancet : () French author Symptoms are the body’s mother tongue; signs are There are but three events which concern man: in a foreign language. They are unconscious of Horae Subsecivae Series I, Introduction their birth, they suffer when they die, and they Science and Art are the offspring of light and neglect to live. A long illness seems to be placed between life and Attributed death, in order to make death a comfort both to those who die and to those who remain. Quoted with reference to osteopathy by Reginald Pound in Characters ‘Of Mankind’ (transl. Address, March () English writer, non-conformist preacher, and philosopher The captain of all these men of death that came William Buchan ‒ against him to take him away was the Scottish physician and medical reformer consumption; for it was that brought him down to the grave. Philadephia () Anthony Burgess ‒ It appears from the annual register of the dead British novelist that almost one half of the children born in Great Keep away from physicians. They leave it Domestic Medicine (th edn) () to Nature to cure in her own time, but they take the credit. Physicians should be consulted when needed, but Nothing Like the Sun () they should be needed very rarely. Euthanasia is a long, smooth-sounding word, and Reﬂections on the Revolution in France it conceals its danger as long, smooth words do, but the danger is there, nevertheless. Among the arts, medicine, on account of its Attributed eminent utility, must always hold the highest place. How much, not only of acres, but of his The Anatomy of Melancholy constitution, his temper, his conduct, character and nature he may inherit from some progenitor Tobacco, divine, rare, superexcellent ten times removed! Some evils admit of consolations, but there are no comforters Health indeed is a precious thing, to recover for dyspepsia and the toothache. The Meaning of Right and Wrong, Introduction Quoted October There are two kinds of appendicitis – acute appendicitis and appendicitis for revenue only. Commencement Address, Columbia University Rewards and Training of a Physician Samuel Butler ‒ William Cadogan ‒ British writer English physician Parents are the last people on earth who ought to The gout is so common a disease, that there is have children. A Dissertation on the Gout, and All Chronic Diseases, Jointly Notebooks () Ch. To these causes, I impute most of costs a lot of money to die comfortably, unless one their diseases. The more a thing knows its own mind, the more Introduction to Paediatric Radiology living it becomes. Don Juan Canto , Stanza Governing America Simon and Schuster, New York () Pierre Cabanis ‒ James S. Calnan ‒ French physician and philosopher British plastic surgeon, London Impressions arriving at the brain make it enter Since nearly every surgical operation begins into activity, just as food falling into the stomach with an incision in the skin and ends with excites it to more abundant secretion of gastric closure of the wound, knowledge of the juice. Preservatives are called preservatives because they Each in His Own Tongue help you live longer. The ﬁrst population is dying as a result of diseases makes him appear to know more than he does, of poverty (largely starvation and infection) and the second gives him an expression of the other half is succumbing to diseases of concern which the patient interprets as being on afﬂuence. The Way of an Investigator ‘Fitness for the Enterprise’ Dying Hymn Al Capp (Alfred Gerald Caplin) William B. Harvard Medical Alumni Bulletin : () Thomas Carlyle ‒ Scottish historian and philosopher Catalan proverb Self-contemplation is infallibly the symptom of disease. From the bitterness of disease man learns the Characteristics sweetness of health. Scientiﬁc Baltimore () Letter to Ralph Waldo Emerson, November () Conviviality has a levelling effect, and divests the physician of his proper prestige.
The Noyes-Whitney equation describes the influence of surface area (S) and other factors on the dissolution rate: (Equation 6 buy 130mg malegra dxt free shipping erectile dysfunction quitting smoking. A reduction in particle size results in an increase in the surface area malegra dxt 130 mg low price erectile dysfunction diabetes pathophysiology, which facilitates an increase in the dissolution rate and therefore buy malegra dxt 130mg free shipping erectile dysfunction qof, also buy malegra dxt 130mg with visa impotence age 45, an increase in the rate of absorption. Drugs administered as suspension are generally rapidly absorbed because of the large available surface area of the dispersed solid. For solid dosage forms such as tablets and capsules, decreasing the particle size facilitates dissolution and thus absorption. Peak blood levels occurred much faster with the smaller 148 particles (50 µm) than with large ones (800 µm), confirming that particle size must be considered in order to optimize absorption. For this reason, many poorly soluble, slowly dissolving drugs for oral drug delivery are marketed in a micronized or microcyrstalline form. These include: Wetting agents Wetting agents are surfactants that lower the interfacial tension and contact angle between solid particles and liquid vehicles. These agents are therefore commonly used to improve the wettability of hydrophobic compounds. Polysorbate 80 is the most widely used wetting agent because of its low toxicity and high compatibility with most formulation ingredients. For example, the common pharmaceutical wetting agent, sodium dodecyl sulfate, has been shown to increase the absorption of drugs and peptides across the human intestinal epithelium. Studies have confirmed that such agents enhance absorption via the paracellular pathway. Diluents Diluents are inert substances added to the active ingredient to bulk up the formulation, in order to make a reasonably sized tablet, or to fill a capsule. Carbohydrates are commonly used, such as lactose, dextrose, sucrose, and microcrystalline cellulose. Hydrophilic diluents promote rapid tablet disintegration and therefore liberate the drug quickly from the dosage form, which promotes absorption. Some diluents dissolve very slowly and therefore release of the drug occurs by tablet erosion, rather than tablet disintegration. However, a hydrophobic diluent impedes penetration of gastrointestinal fluids, so that dissolution of drug occurs only from the surface of the plug-shaped mass. Binders (adhesives) In tableting, binders are used to bind powders together in the wet granulation process. These agents coat the drug particles and therefore the rate of binder dissolution can determine the drug release rate. Disintegrants The purpose of a disintegrant is to cause the tablet to disintegrate rapidly, so as to generate an increased surface area which facilitates rapid drug dissolution. An alternative mechanism involves capillary action, in which liquid is drawn up through capillary pathways within the tablet and ruptures the interparticulate bonds, which serves to break the tablet apart. Obviously, disintegrants with high swelling and hydrating capacities promote rapid dissolution and thus a high bioavailability. Lubricants Lubricants act by interposing an intermediate layer between the tablet constituents and the die wall, to prevent adherence of the granules to the punch faces and dies. The most effective lubricants, such as magnesium stearate, are very hydrophobic and can also prevent wetting of powders and hence retard dissolution (Figure 6. Newer technologies may also incorporate additives such as enzyme inhibitors, to prevent premature degradation of enzymatically labile drugs. For example, the inclusion of trypsin inhibitors, such as soyabean trypsin inhibitor and aprotinin, have been shown to be effective in enhancing the effect of insulin in rats. Penetration enhancers may also be included to facilitate the uptake of poorly absorbed moieies. A brief overview of both the advantages and disadvantages of oral drug delivery is given below. Large surface area The total surface area of the small intestine in humans is approximately 200 m, which represents a large2 effective surface area for drug absorption. Rich blood supply The highly vascular surface of the gastrointestinal mucosa ensures rapid absorption and onset of action, as well as the maintenance of sink conditions. Zero-order controlled release Oral drug delivery offers the potential to achieve zero-order controlled release. Commercial advantages The cost of oral therapy is generally much lower in comparison to parenteral and other routes of delivery. In addition, a number of patient variables (gender, race, age, and disease state) can also drastically alter the absorption of orally administered drugs. As so many variables influence the availability of the drug at the target site, there is great potential amongst orally administered drugs for bioinequivalence. Adverse reactions Locally irritating or sensitizing drugs must be used with caution in this route. For example, some drugs are gastro-toxic, causing damage to the mucosal lining of the stomach. Adverse environmental effects The nature of the gastrointestinal environment also limits the types of drugs that may be administered via this route. Adverse environmental effects include: High metabolic activity The high metabolic activity creates a formidable biochemical barrier to the delivery of enzymatically labile drugs. In particular, the oral bioavailability of therapeutic peptides and proteins is very low (typically<1%). Extreme of pH Some drugs are acid-labile and are degraded by the highly acidic conditions of the stomach. Delays in gastric emptying rates can prolong the residence time of drugs in the stomach, increasing the potential for acid-mediated degradation. Intestinal motility Intestinal motility can severely constrain the contact time of a drug moiety with the absorbing surface. Mucus barrier Drug diffusion may be limited by the physical barrier of the mucus layer and the binding of drugs to mucus. P-glycoprotein efflux pump By restricting the transcellular flux of some molecules, this pump serves as further barrier to drug absorption. Impermeable epithelium 152 The organization and architecture of the gastrointestinal epithelium provides a substantial physical barrier to the absorption of large, hydrophilic molecules such as therapeutic peptides, proteins and oligonucleotides. For example, although insulin was commercially introduced in 1923, despite intensive research efforts directed towards attaining its oral delivery, all approaches have proven unsuccessful, and an oral form of insulin is as yet not commercially available. When rapid, efficient absorption of drugs is desired, aqueous solutions represent the oral dosage form of choice. Drugs in suspension are also readily absorbed because, as described above, the large available surface area of the dispersed solid facilitates rapid dissolution and absorption. Suspensions are also suitable for young children and patients who have difficulty in swallowing tablets and capsules. Emulsions are potentially useful for improving the bioavailability of lipid-soluble drugs.
Kaposi sarcoma discount malegra dxt 130mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction doctor, that studies blood cells buy cheap malegra dxt 130 mg line impotent rage, blood-clotting mecha- a neoplastic disorder order malegra dxt line erectile dysfunction urban dictionary, and Pneumocystis pneumo- nisms discount malegra dxt american express erectile dysfunction drugs nhs, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. The virus attacks the most important phylaxis, adverse reactions to drugs, autoimmune cell in the immune system, the helper T cell. T cell, which impacts the effective functioning of the humoral and cellular arms of the immune sys- tem, ultimately causing the patient’s death. Some of the causes of anemias include excessive blood loss, excessive blood-cell destruction, Allergy decreased blood formation, and faulty hemoglobin production. An allergy is an acquired abnormal immune Anemia commonly causes changes in the response. Pathology 243 Table 9-4 Common Anemias This table lists various types of anemia along with descriptions and causes for each. The offending allergens are identified by allergy This treatment involves repeated injections of high- sensitivity tests. The ini- are made on the patient’s back and a liquid suspen- tial concentration of the solution is too weak to sion of the allergen is introduced into the scratch. Additional exposure to higher If antibodies to the allergen are present in the concentrations promotes tolerance of the allergen. The degree Autoimmunity is the failure of the body to distin- of deficiency varies from mild to severe. Women are carriers of the trait but generally attacks the antigens found on its own cells to such do not have symptoms of the disease. Types of Mild symptoms include nosebleeds, easy bruis- autoimmune disorders range from those that affect ing, and bleeding from the gums. Severe symp- only a single organ to those that affect many toms produce areas of blood seepage (hematomas) organs and tissues (multisystemic). If blood enters joints Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder (hemarthrosis), it is associated with pain and, that affects the neuromuscular junction. Uncontrolled the limbs and eyes and those affecting speech and bleeding in the body may lead to shock and death. Treatment consists of attempting to reach a bal- ance between suppressing the immune response to Infectious Mononucleosis avoid tissue damage, while still maintaining the immune mechanism sufficiently to protect against Infectious mononucleosis is one of the acute disease. Most autoimmune diseases have periods of infections caused by the Epstein-Barr virus flare-up (exacerbations) and latency (remissions). It is usually found in young adults and Autoimmune diseases are usually chronic, requiring tends to appear in early spring and fall. Saliva lifelong care and monitoring, even when the person and respiratory secretions have been implicated may look or feel well. Currently, few autoimmune as significant infectious agents, hence the name diseases can be cured; however, with treatment, “kissing disease. Other signs and symptoms include gum infec- Edema tion (gingivitis), headache, tiredness, loss of appetite (anorexia), and general malaise. In most Edema is an abnormal accumulation of fluids in cases, the disease resolves spontaneously and the intercellular spaces of the body. In some cases, however, of edema is a decrease in the blood protein level the liver and spleen enlarge (hepatomegaly/ (hypoproteinemia), especially albumin, which splenomegaly). Less common clinical findings controls the amount of plasma leaving the vascular include hemolytic anemia with jaundice and channels. Recovery usually ensures a lymph drainage, high sodium intake, increased lasting immunity. Edema limited to a specific area (localized) Oncology may be relieved by elevation of that body part and application of cold packs. Systemic edema may be Oncological disorders associated with the blood, treated with medications that promote urination lymph, and immune systems include leukemia, (diuretics). Closely associated with edema is a condition called ascites, in which fluid collects within the Leukemia peritoneal or pleural cavity. The chief causes of Leukemia is an oncological disorder of the blood- ascites are interference in venous return in cardiac forming organs, characterized by an overgrowth disease, obstruction of lymphatic flow, distur- (proliferation) of blood cells. The disease is generally categorized by the type of Hemophilia leukocyte population affected: granulocytic (myel- ogenous) or lymphocytic. Hemophilia is a hereditary disorder in which the The various types of leukemia may be further blood-clotting mechanism is impaired. In the acute form, two main types of hemophilia: hemophilia A, the cells are highly embryonic (blastic) with few Pathology 245 mature forms, resulting in severe anemia, infec- become excessively large, they may press on the tions, and bleeding disorders. This form of trachea, causing difficulty in breathing (dyspnea), leukemia is life threatening. Although there is a or on the esophagus, causing difficulty in swallow- proliferation of blastic cells in chronic forms of ing (dysphagia). Newer meth- Although the causes of leukemia are unknown, ods of treatment include bone marrow transplants. Bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy Kaposi Sarcoma are used to diagnose leukemia. Treatment includes Kaposi sarcoma is a malignancy of connective tis- chemotherapy, radiation, biological therapy, bone sue, including bone, fat, muscle, and fibrous tissue. Other symptoms relieving the pain and discomfort that accompany include severe itching (pruritus), weight loss, the lesions, but there is little evidence that it pro- progressive anemia, and fever. Diagnostic, Symptomatic, and Related Terms This section introduces diagnostic, symptomatic, and related terms and their meanings. The acute form appears within 2 months of the transplant; the chronic form usually appears within 3 months. Its two types include natural active immunity, resulting from recovery from a disease, and artif icial active immunity, resulting from an immunizing vaccination. Two types of passive immunity include natural passive immunity, where medical intervention is not required (infant receiving antibodies through breast milk) and artif icial passive immunity, where antibodies, antitoxins, or toxoids (generally produced in sheep or horses) are transfused or injected into the patient to provide immediate protection. In systemic lymph: lymph lymphadenopathy, two or more noncontiguous areas of the body are affected. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures This section introduces procedures used to diagnose and treat blood, lymph, and immune disorders. Descriptions are provided as well as pronunciations and word analyses for selected terms. The more elevated the sed rate, the more severe is erythr/o: red the inflammation. For example, anticoagulants are vent cellular replication to halt the spread of can- used to prevent clot formation but are ineffective cer in the body; antivirals prevent viral replication in destroying formed clots. Table 9-5 Drugs used to Treat Blood, Lymph, and Immune Disorders This table lists common drug classifications used to treat blood, lymph, and immune disorders, their therapeutic actions, and selected generic and trade names. Complete each activity and review your answers to evaluate your understanding of the chapter. Learning Activity 9-1 Identifying Lymph Structures Label the following illustration using the terms listed below. Enhance your study and reinforcement of word elements with the power of DavisPlus. We recommend you complete the flash-card activity before completing activity 9–2 below.
Mutationally resistant bacteria show one or several amino acid changes in the area between amino acid residues 67 and 106 buy cheap malegra dxt on line erectile dysfunction medication otc. It could be surmised that the more bulky threonine molecule interferes with optimal binding of the inhibiting quinolone cheap 130mg malegra dxt with amex yohimbine treatment erectile dysfunction. Resistance by Quinolone Efflux Proteins located in the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria buy 130 mg malegra dxt mastercard erectile dysfunction treatment diabetes, efﬂux proteins cheap malegra dxt 130mg amex best erectile dysfunction drug review, have the ability to pump out toxic substances from the cell against a concentration gradient at a cost in energy. This could be compared to the mechanism of tetracycline resistance, where a speciﬁc protein in the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane pumps out tetracycline from the bacterial cell (Chapter 7). This pathogen has been shown to overproduce earlier known efﬂux proteins (Mex proteins) by a mutationally changed regulation, resulting in resistance to several antibacterial agents, including quinolones. Transferable Plasmid-Borne Resistance Single reports on plasmid-borne resistance to quinolones were published in the mid-1980s, but the observations in them were never veriﬁed and a mechanism could not be deﬁned. Transfer- able quinolone resistance was long held to be impossible from a biological point of view. This opinion was based on theknowledge available on mechanisms of plasmid-borne resistance to antibac- terial agents. It should be noted that quinolones are notoriously stable and could be regarded as an environmental threat if spread in the soil of arable land. Further- more, intracellularly quinolone susceptibility is dominant over quinolone resistance. This means that a plasmid-borne gene gyrA (expressing the gyrase A subunit), changed mutationally not to bind quinolones, would not mediate quinolone resistance to a bacterial cell if introduced into it, for example, by conjugation. All these considerations contributed to a sort of consensus that plasmid-borne and transferable quinolone resistance could not exist. But at the end of the 1990s, to the great surprise of all microbiologists, plasmid-borne and conjugatable quinolone resistance was demonstrated irrefutably. With an anthropomorphic view this could be viewed as the microbiological world outwitting all those dead-certain microbiologists. It can also be said that the most interesting and trail-blazing discoveries are astonishing, and it is signiﬁcant that reports about those discoveries often begin: ‘‘To our great surprise... Experiments demonstrated that the quinolone resis- tance could be transferred to and expressed in several other enterobacteria, such as E. Thegene was denoted qnr for quinolone resistance and was shown to be located in an integronlike context upstream of qacEandsul1 (see Chapter 10). Both its plasmid localization and its integron context imply the great ability of the quinolone resistance gene to spread among bacteria. Systematic surveys of clinical isolates have also shown that the qnr gene is spread widely among E. It was also shown that the protecting effect was abolished if the qnr protein was denatured by boiling before it was added. By comparisons of amino acid sequences, the resistance pro- tein expressed from qnr was shown to belong to a known family of proteins, characterized by pentapeptide repetitions (i. One such protein is McbgG, a component of a system protecting microcin B17 bacteria from intoxicating themselves. Microcin B17 is an antibacterial peptide with an effect similar to that of ciproﬂoxacin. Similar proteins have also been observed in Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis,andMycobacterium tubercu- losis. These observations could be interpreted to mean that the speciﬁc qnr protein ought to be found in this group of proteins. This search resulted in the ﬁnding in Shewanella algae of a gene identical to that found originally on a plasmid in K. Test tube experiments showed, furthermore, that the qnrA- like protein inhibited the gyrase function. This probably leads to slower bacterial growth, but for the bacterium, this is better than to be killed by the quinolone. After deﬁning the concept of plasmid-borne quinolone resistance, and characterization of the qnrA gene, several resistance genes of this type have been found. At a food- mediated eruption of Shigella ﬂexneri infections in Japan in 2003, a plasmid-borne gene for quinolone resistance was found and named qnrS. Its corresponding amino acid sequence shows a 59% amino acid sequence identity with the corresponding sequence of qnrA. Still another transferable quinolone resistance gene qnrB was found in a clinical isolate of K. All these observations seem to mean that quinolone resistance will soon be very widespread. It should be added here that another type of plasmid-borne quinolone resistance has already been mentioned in Chapter 6. That was the mutationally changed enzyme of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase, in which spontaneous mutations had changed the substrate spectrum of the enzyme to include a quinolone, ciproﬂoxacin. That was a notable development under the intense increase in the medical use of ciproﬂoxacin: A single-function resistance enzyme crossed substrate group boundaries to become capable of mediating resistance to unrelated antimicrobial agents, one of which is fully synthetic and which has not been present in nature until its relatively recent medical use. Finding the qnr protein in human pathogens also demonstrates the efﬁciency of those genetic mechanisms transporting resistance genes horizontally over long biological distances. Those genetic transport mechanisms might also have been developed and selected for by our distribution of antibiotics (see Chapter 10). These drugs are now used less as antibacterial agents in urinary tract infections. Finally, nitroimi- dazoles, which have found use against the peptic ulcer bacterium Helicobacter pylori, are discussed. There is evidence to show that mycobacteria emerged from the soil to ﬁnd a niche ﬁrst infesting, then infecting, various mammals and birds. Mycobacterium bovis is a common animal pathogen affecting a variety of animals, including ruminants and primates. It has been speculated that the tuberculosis bacterium was intro- duced into humankind when humans domesticated cattle some 7000 years ago. The disease of tuberculosis has been rampant in Europe and North America for the past ﬁve centuries. During the seven- teenth and eighteenth centuries ‘‘the white plague’’ took the life of one in ﬁve humans in these parts of the world. In the years 1850–1950, before medical treatment was introduced, 1 billion persons are estimated to have died from the disease. The tuber- culosis bacterium turned out to be highly resistant to the ﬁrst selectively acting antibacterial agents, such as the sulfonamides and penicillin. However, a betalactam derivative, meropenem, has recently been shown to have an effect on M.
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