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Put another way cheap cabgolin online medicine rocks state park, there are three functions of the human nervous system as a whole: orientation order 0.5 mg cabgolin with visa treatment borderline personality disorder, or the ability to generate nerve impulses in response to changes in the external and internal environments (this also can be referred to as perception); coordination buy cabgolin 0.5mg on line treatment innovations, or the ability to receive buy on line cabgolin medicine on airplane, sort, and direct those signals to channels for response (this also can be referred to as integration); and conceptual thought, or the capacity to record, store, and relate information received and to form plans for future reactions to environmental change (which includes specific action). You practice identi- fying the parts and functions of nerves and the brain itself as well as the structure and activi- ties of the Big Three parts of the whole nervous system: the central, the peripheral, and the autonomic systems. In addition, we touch on the sensory organs that bring information into the human body. Part V: Mission Control: All Systems Go 238 Building from Basics: Neurons, Nerves, Impulses, Synapses Before trying to study the system as a whole, it’s best to break it down into building blocks first. Neurons The basic unit that makes up nerve tissue is the neuron (also called a nerve cell). Its properties include that marvelous irritability that we speak of in the chapter introduc- tion as well as conductivity, otherwise known as the ability to transmit a nerve impulse. The central part of a neuron is the cell body, or soma, that contains a large nucleus with one or more nucleoli, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, numerous ribosomes, and Nissl bodies that are associated with conduction of a nerve impulse. Two types of cytoplasmic projections play a role in neurons: Dendrites conduct impulses to the cell body while axons (nerve fibers) usually conduct impulses away from the cell body (see Figure 15-1). Each neuron has only one axon; however, each axon can have many branches called axon collaterals, enabling communication with many target cells. In addition, each neuron may have one dendrite, several dendrites, or none at all. There are three types of neurons, as follows: Motor neurons, or efferent neurons, transmit messages from the brain and spinal cord to effector organs, including muscles and glands, triggering them to respond. Motor neurons are classified structurally as multipolar because they’re star-shaped cells with a single large axon and numerous dendrites. Sensory neurons, or afferent neurons, are triggered by physical stimuli, such as light, and pass the impulses on to the brain and spinal cord. Sensory fibers have special structures called receptors, or end organs, where the stimulus is propa- gated. Monopolar neurons have a single process (a projection or outgrowth of tissue) that divides shortly after leaving the cell body; one branch conveys impulses from sense organs while the other branch carries impulses to the central nervous system. Association neurons (also called internuncial neurons, interneurons, or interca- lated neurons) are triggered by sensory neurons and relay messages between neurons within the brain and spinal cord. Here are a couple of handy memory devices: Afferent connections arrive, and efferent connections exit. Sensory Neuron Dendrites Cell body Nucleolus Nucleus Nucleolus Axon Nucleus Nucleus of Schwann cell Figure 15-1: Cell body The motor neuron on Schwann cell Axon the left and Node of Ranvier sensory neuron on the right show the cell struc- tures and the paths of Synaptic bouton impulses. Nerves Whereas neurons are the basic unit of the nervous system, nerves are the cable-like bundles of axons that weave together the peripheral nervous system. There are three types of nerves: Afferent nerves are composed of sensory nerve fibers (axons) grouped together to carry impulses from receptors to the central nervous system. Efferent nerves are composed of motor nerve fibers carrying impulses from the central nervous system to effector organs, such as muscles or glands. The diameter of individual axons (nerve fibers) tends to be microscopically small — many are no more than a micron, or one-millionth of a meter. The longest axons in the human body run from the base of the spine to the big toe of each foot, meaning that these single-cell fibers may be 1 meter or more in length. Each axon is swathed in myelin, a white fatty material made up of concentric layers of Schwann cells in peripheral nerves. Oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system are also associated with myelinated nerve fibers. Gaps in the sheath called nodes of Ranvier give the underlying nerve fiber access to extracellular fluid, to speed up propagation of the nerve impulse. Nonmyelinated nerve fibers lie within body organs and therefore don’t need protective myelin sheaths to help them transmit impulses. Many peripheral nerve cell fibers also are protected by a neurilemmal sheath, a membrane that surrounds both the nerve fiber and its myelin sheath. Part V: Mission Control: All Systems Go 240 From the inside out, nerves are composed of the following: Axon: The impulse-conducting process of a neuron Myelin sheath: An insulating envelope that protects the nerve fiber and facilitates transmission of nerve impulses Neurolemma (or neurilemma): A thin membrane present in many peripheral nerves that surrounds the nerve fiber and the myelin sheath Endoneurium: Loose, or areolar, connective tissue surrounding individual fibers Fasciculi: Bundles of fibers within a nerve Perineurium: The same kind of connective tissue as endoneurium; surrounds a bundle of fibers Epineurium: The same kind of connective tissue as endoneurium and perineurium; surrounds several bundles of fibers There also is a class of cells called neuroglia, or simply glia, that act as the supportive cells of the nervous system, providing neurons with nutrients and otherwise protecting them. Glia include oligodendrocytes that support the myelin sheath within the central nervous system; star-shaped cells called astrocytes that both support nerve tissue and contribute to repairs when needed; and microgliacytes, cells that remove dead or dying parts of tissue (this type of cell is called a phagocyte, which literally translates from the Greek words for “cell that eats”). Impulses Neuron membranes are semi-permeable (meaning that certain small molecules like ions can move in and out but larger molecules can’t), and they’re electrically polarized (meaning that positively charged ions called cations rest around the outside mem- brane surface while negatively charged ions called anions line the inner surface; you can find more about ions in Chapter 1). A neuron that isn’t busy transmitting an impulse is said to be at its resting potential. But the nerve impulse theory, or membrane theory, says that things switch around when a stimulus — a nerve impulse, or action potential — moves along the neuron. A stimulus changes the specific permeability of the fiber membrane and causes a depolarization due to a reshuffling of the cations and anions. It’s called an all-or-none response because each neuron has a specific threshold of excitation. After depolarization, repolarization occurs followed by a refractory period, during which no further impulses occur, even if the stimuli’s intensity increases. Intensity of sensation, however, depends on the frequency with which one nerve impulse follows another and the rate at which the impulse travels. That rate is deter- mined by the diameter of the impacted fiber and tends to be more rapid in large nerve fibers. The cyto- plasm of the axon or nerve fiber is electrically conductive and the myelin decreases the capacitance to prevent charge leakage through the membrane. Depolarization at one node of Ranvier is sufficient to trigger regeneration of the voltage at the next node. Therefore, in myelinated nerve fibers the action potential does not move as a wave but recurs at successive nodes, traveling faster than in nonmyelinated fibers. This is referred to as saltatory conduction (from the Latin word saltare, which means “to hop or leap”). Chapter 15: Feeling Jumpy: The Nervous System 241 Synapses Neurons don’t touch, which means that when a nerve impulse reaches the end of a neuron, it needs to cross a gap to the next neuron or to the gland or muscle cell for which the message is intended. An electric synapse — generally found in organs and glial cells — uses channels known as gap junc- tions to permit direct transmission of signals between neurons. But in other parts of the body, chemical changes occur to let the impulse make the leap. The end branches of an axon each form a terminal knob or bulb called a bouton terminal (that first word’s pro- nounced boo-taw), beyond which there is a space between it and the next nerve path- way. Synaptic vesicles in the knob release a transmitter called acetylcholine that flows across the gap and increases the permeability of the next cell mem- brane in the chain. An enzyme called cholinesterase breaks the transmitter down into acetyl and choline, which then diffuse back across the gap. An enzyme called choline acetylase in the synaptic vesicles reunites the acetyl and choline, prepping the bouton terminal to do its job again when the next impulse rolls through. Capacity to record, store, and relate information to be used to determine future action 6. The terminal structure of the cytoplasmic projection of the neuron cannot be a(n) a.
Te physician can then use the title of forensic pathologist and is considered board certifed in that feld generic cabgolin 0.5 mg on-line symptoms nausea dizziness. Te formation of an academic specialty of forensic pathology owes much to early chairs of forensic medicine established in Europe and Scotland cheap cabgolin 0.5mg without prescription medications for anxiety, but the frst endowed chair of legal medicine in the United States was established at the Harvard Medical School in 1937 purchase 0.5 mg cabgolin fast delivery treatment alternatives. Forensic pathology was frst recognized as a medical subspecialty in 1959 cheap 0.5mg cabgolin mastercard symptoms irritable bowel syndrome, when examinations were administered and the frst cadre of physicians was certifed as forensic pathologists. Over the years, the medical examiner system has been refned somewhat to include some fairly standard elements. Forensic pathologists working under the direction of a coroner should not be referred to as medical examiners, since the coroner is the actual ofcial imbued with the authority to investigate and certify death, not a physician. In this way, the ofce of medical examiner becomes a professional position, not a political one, and the ofce holder is not concerned with currying favor with an electorate and periodically campaigning for reelection. Te sole authority for investigation and certifcation of deaths in his or her jurisdictional area, and is independent of law enforcement, pros- ecutorial, or judicial agencies. Only a trained and experi- enced physician has the knowledge to obtain and analyze such data and to synthesize a rational cause and manner of death conclusion from it. During the frst half of the twentieth century, medical examiner systems progressively replaced coroner jurisdictions throughout the United States. At this time, the populations of twenty-two states are served solely by medical examiners, eleven by coroners, and seventeen by a combination of medical examiner and coroner systems. Some medical examiner states are under the authority of a statewide medi- cal examiner. For instance, in Texas, justices of the peace perform coroner duties in counties without a medical examiner. For these reasons, it is difcult to efectively categorize medicolegal death investigation systems in the United States, as the various systems ofen have little resemblance to each other. In early times, records of birth and death were kept inconsistently, if at all, but in 1538, clergy in England were required to keep a ledger of births, deaths, and marriages in their parishes. Tis custom of registration persisted for many years, but gradually became a death investigation systems 43 Table 4. Tis change was given further impetus during infectious epidemics of the nineteenth century, when it came to be appreciated that it would be worthwhile to keep track of the numbers of deaths occurring as an infectious contagion progressed. Modern death certifcation is a function of state governments, and all jurisdictions in the United States have a common requirement that the death of a person be ofcially documented, with attes- tation of the cause and manner of death by a physician, medical examiner, coroner, or other ofcial. Te document serving this purpose is referred to as a death certifcate, and requirements regarding its use and fling are set forth by a state department of health, vital records, or equivalent. Standard Certifcate of Death, which is in turn based on World Health Organization recommendations. Many states are also moving toward a standardized digital death registration process that promises to make gathering of demographic and epidemiologic data much simpler and more efective. First, as has been noted above, a developed society has an interest in documenting death investigation systems 45 the birth and death of its citizenry in order to provide for transfer of estates, administration of societal programs, payment of insurance settlements, etc. Te tracking of deaths from an epidemiologic viewpoint allows for better public health surveillance in a society, be it related to epidemic diseases or public safety issues. As all purveyors of television crime dramas are well aware, adequate death investigation and certifcation is required for the criminal prosecution of deaths due to the action or inaction of another person or institution. And fnally, knowledge of the cause and manner of death is ofen of importance in allowing appropriate grieving and closure for the family and loved ones of a decedent. In most jurisdictions, deaths occurring solely by natural means may be certifed by attending physicians. However, deaths due to trauma, intoxica- tion, or unknown means usually fall under the jurisdiction of the medical examiner or coroner, and must be investigated and certifed by that ofce. In addition to the demographic documentation related to the decedent, such ofces must also attempt to determine the cause and manner of death. Tis is in distinction to the subsequent resultant physiologic derangements caused by this event. Tese derangements are ofen referred to as mechanisms of death or the immediate causes of death. For example, suppose an individual receives a gunshot wound that injures the spinal cord and renders the victim quadriplegic. If, years later, he or she succumbs to a urinary tract infection related to the paralytic bladder caused by the spinal cord injury, the cause of death should be appropri- ately certifed as a “gunshot wound of the back,” or “urosepsis complicat- ing quadriplegia due to gunshot wound of back. Te reasons for this are readily apparent, as most clinical physicians are concerned with diagnosing and treating acute conditions that can be ameliorated by medical or surgical therapy. Te medical examiner, however, recognizes that the purpose of death certifcation is to provide sta- tistical information on primary causes of death, and that the lapse of time between injury and death is of no importance in this documentation. Just as a clinical physician must take a medical his- tory prior to performing a physical examination, the medical examiner must have investigative information regarding the circumstances of death prior to reaching a conclusion. Review of past medical history, consideration of the presentation of the decedent at the time of death (sudden collapse, complaints of symptoms), and other factors are of equal importance to the autopsy and other examination techniques. It is for this reason that an adequate investiga- tive team is required to assist the medical examiner in gathering initial and follow-up information. Tere are degrees of uncertainty in any cause of death determination, and the degree of likelihood necessary to make a cause of death statement varies from case to case. It is a matter requiring considerable professional judgment and experience, and is very difcult to quantify in most cases. Te phrase “beyond a reasonable doubt” is a legal term referring to conclusions by a criminal trial judge or jury, but it has no place in the lexicon of the forensic pathologist. Instead, medical examiners are ofen asked to render their opin- ions to a “reasonable degree of medical probability. It is important to realize that cause of death statements by a medical examiner are opinions, resulting from consideration of myriad diferent factors and observations, generation of a diferential list of potentially fatal conditions or injuries, and selection of the most likely candidate(s) for cause of death from that list. When explaining this opinion to attorneys, families, juries, or any other group, the forensic pathologist must make every efort to convey any degree of uncertainty, to acknowledge other possible opinions, and to explain his or her rationale for selecting one over another. To simply state an opinion dogmatically, leaving no room for competing theories or argument, is incompatible with honest forensic medical practice. Paul Brouardel, a French physician of the late nineteenth century: “If the law has made you a witness, remain a man of science. However, it is incumbent on every practitioner to understand the limitations, degrees of uncertainty, and sometimes ambiguity of medico- legal opinions and to readily acknowledge them when appropriate. Sometimes a cause of death cannot be determined to a reasonable degree of probability. Tis may refect the fact that multiple possible causes of death are present, and one cannot readily be chosen over another. It may also refect death investigation systems 47 the fact that not every fatal condition has accompanying anatomic changes that can be discovered on autopsy examination. Te human body is in fact an electrochemical mechanism, and many fatal physiological processes are not associated with demonstrable anatomic alterations. When these processes cannot be inferred from historical or investigative information, the cause of death may remain undetermined.
The arithmetic average buy cabgolin with paypal symptoms ruptured ovarian cyst, or arithmetic mean order 0.5mg cabgolin amex symptoms anxiety, is the most commonly used measure of central tendency discount cabgolin 0.5mg with mastercard 5 medications. It is computed by calculating the sum of all the scores of the variable and dividing this sum by the number of participants in the distribution (denoted by the letter N) cheap 0.5mg cabgolin medicine 5 rights. This occurs when there are one or more extreme scores (known as outliers) at one end of the distribution. The single very extreme income has a disproportionate impact on the mean, resulting in a value that does not well represent the central tendency. The median is used as an alternative measure of central tendency when distributions are not symmetrical. The median is the score in the center of the distribution, meaning that 50% of the scores are greater than the median and 50% of the scores are less than the median. In our case, the median household income ($73,000) is a much better indication of central tendency than is the mean household income ($223,960). In this case the median or the mode is a better indicator of central tendency than is the mean. A final measure of central tendency, known as the mode, represents the value that occurs most frequently in the distribution. In addition to summarizing the central tendency of a distribution, descriptive statistics convey information about how the scores of the variable are spread around the central tendency. Dispersion refers to the extent to which the scores are all tightly clustered around the central tendency, like this: Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. The standard deviation, symbolized as s, is the most commonly used measure of dispersion. An advantage of descriptive research is that it attempts to capture the complexity of everyday behavior. Case studies provide detailed information about a single person or a small group of people, surveys capture the thoughts or reported behaviors of a large population of people, and naturalistic observation objectively records the behavior of people or animals as it occurs naturally. Thus descriptive research is used to provide a relatively complete understanding of what is currently happening. Despite these advantages, descriptive research has a distinct disadvantage in that, although it allows us to get an idea of what is currently happening, it is usually limited to static pictures. Although descriptions of particular experiences may be interesting, they are not always transferable to other individuals in other situations, nor do they tell us exactly why specific behaviors or events occurred. For instance, descriptions of individuals who have suffered a stressful event, such as a war or an earthquake, can be used to understand the individuals’ reactions to the event but cannot tell us anything about the long-term effects of the stress. And because there is no comparison group that did not experience the stressful situation, we cannot know what these individuals would be like if they hadn’t had the stressful experience. Correlational Research: Seeking Relationships Among Variables In contrast to descriptive research, which is designed primarily to provide static pictures, correlational research involves the measurement of two or more relevant variables and an assessment of the relationship between or among those variables. For instance, the variables of height and weight are systematically related (correlated) because taller people generally weigh more than shorter people. In the same way, study time and memory errors are also related, because the more time a person is given to study a list of words, the fewer errors he or she will Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. When there are two variables in the research design, one of them is called the predictor variable and the other the outcome variable. The research design can be visualized like this, where the curved arrow represents the expected correlation between the two variables: Figure 2. A point is plotted for each individual at the intersection of his or her scores for the two variables. When the association between the variables on the scatter plot can be easily approximated with a straight line, as in parts (a) and (b) of Figure 2. When the straight line indicates that individuals who have above-average values for one variable also tend to have above-average values for the other variable, as in part (a), the relationship is said to be positive linear. Examples of positive linear relationships include those between height and weight, between education and income, and between age and mathematical abilities in children. In each case people who score higher on one of the variables also tend to score higher on the other variable. Negative linear relationships, in contrast, as shown in part (b), occur when above-average values for one variable tend to be associated with below-average values for the other variable. Examples of negative linear relationships include those between the age of a child and the number of diapers the child uses, and between practice on and errors made on a learning Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. In these cases people who score higher on one of the variables tend to score lower on the other variable. Relationships between variables that cannot be described with a straight line are known as nonlinear relationships. In this case there is no relationship at all between the two variables, and they are said to be independent. For instance, part (d) shows the type of relationship that frequently occurs between anxiety and performance. Increases in anxiety from low to moderate levels are associated with performance increases, whereas increases in anxiety from moderate to high levels are associated with decreases in performance. Relationships that change in direction and thus are not described by a single straight line are called curvilinear relationships. Note that the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between variables that have curvilinear relationships will likely be close to zero. The most common statistical measure of the strength of linear relationships among variables is the Pearson correlation coefficient, which is symbolized by the letter r. The direction of the linear relationship is indicated by the sign of the correlation coefficient. The strength of the linear relationship is indexed by the distance of the correlation coefficient from zero (its absolute value). Because the Pearson correlation coefficient only measures linear relationships, variables that have curvilinear relationships are not well described by r, and the observed correlation will be close to zero. It is also possible to study relationships among more than two measures at the same time. A research design in which more than one predictor variable is used to predict a single outcome variable is analyzed through multiple regression(Aiken & West,  1991). Multiple regression is a statistical technique, based on correlation coefficients among variables, that allows predicting a single outcome variable from more than one predictor variable. The use of multiple regression analysis shows an important advantage of correlational research designs—they can be used to make predictions about a person’s likely score on an outcome variable (e. An important limitation of correlational research designs is that they cannot be used to draw conclusions about the causal relationships among the measured variables. Consider, for instance, a researcher who has hypothesized that viewing violent behavior will cause increased aggressive play in children.
Grant is a multi-talented scientist buy cheap cabgolin on line premonitory symptoms, lecturer cabgolin 0.5mg on-line symptoms bladder cancer, proliﬁc author and Canada’s top stress management and wellness coach 0.5 mg cabgolin treatment that works. She is a highly sought-after generic 0.5 mg cabgolin otc symptoms crohns disease, passionate speaker who is dedicated to improving the health of society by sharing her knowledge. Karlene is author of The Metabolic Syndrome Program and co-author of the national best-seller Healthy Fats for Life. He is the author of eight books, including the international best-seller Fat Wars, and is a 2003 in- ductee into the Canadian Sports Nutrition Hall of Fame. Michael Lyon is the Medical and Research Director for the Canadian Centre for Functional Medicine located in Vancouver, B. He heads a team of clinicians and researchers dedicated to biotechnology, nutritional and natural health product research. He is involved in collaborative clinical research with various Canadian universities and the Imperial College of Medicine in London, England, in the ﬁeld of obesity, diabetes and appetite regulation, and with the University of British Columbia in the area of childhood learning and behavioural disorders. Lyon is the author of Healing the Hyperactive Brain Through the New Science of Functional Medicine and Is Your Child’s Brain Starving? Tracy Marsden Tracy earned science and pharmacy degrees from the University of Alberta and worked in a community pharmacy setting for over ﬁfteen years. Her enthusiasm for wellness prompted her to obtain additional training in herbals and homeopathy. She worked several years as a Natural Medicine Consultant for a pharmacy chain, where she also helped develop marketing strategies for their natural products department. Tracy has con- sulted to a number of natural products manufacturers and is a regular columnist for Pharmacy Post. She has also written on natural product marketing for Integrated Health Retailer magazine. President of the Alberta College of Pharmacists for 2004–2005, Tracy is well respected in the health care ﬁeld. She is a founding partner of Rocky Mountain Analytical, a private Canadian wellness-focused medical laboratory. Joey Shulman is the author of Winning the Food Fight: Every Parent’s Guide to Raising a Healthy, Happy Child (Wiley 2003) and the national best-seller The Natural Makeover Diet: 4 Steps to Inner Health and Outer Beauty (Wiley 2006). As one of Canada’s foremost authorities on nutrition and wellness, she is a highly sought-after speaker, inspiring and educating large audiences across North America. Joey has spoken to nu- merous large corporations, and was an invited speaker at Dr. She is the vice-president of nutrition for Truestar Health, North America’s leading online health site, and is a proud spokesperson for Genuine Health supplements. As a new mom, she is also a proud endorser and head nutritionist for Sweetpea Baby Food, a line of top-quality frozen organic baby food. Lorna believes in empowering people with health knowledge so they may achieve optimal wellness. He frequently lectures to the public and to healthcare professionals, and appears both on television and radio to discuss integrative approaches to health and wellness. In 2003 he co-authored Breaking the Age Barrier: Strategies for Optimal Health, Energy, and Longevity. Wylde is Toronto’s expert homeopathic doctor and functional medicine nutritionist. His practice has a particular motivation towards helping those with autoimmunity, digestive complaints, and the integrative treatment and prevention of cancer. We have gone from us- ing medicine men and plant-based remedies to creating pharmaceutical drugs and sophisticated surgical procedures. Undoubtedly, medicine today now provides us with the ability to ﬁght off deadly diseases and live longer lives; however, we must not forget that many solutions can still be found in nature. In fact, many of the pre- scription medications used today are derived from plants. As well, we must be aware that lifestyle factors—diet, activity level, sleep, and environment—play a critical role in health and disease prevention. In the last 20 years, we’ve witnessed a growing desire to look to natural rem- edies ﬁrst before taking prescription medications that may have drug interactions, side effects, and high costs. There is increasing interest in prevention for both minor and chronic health concerns and awareness of taking responsibility for one’s health. People are no longer satisﬁed with the idea of taking a pill to ﬁx their problems. They are starting to question the indiscriminate use of prescription drugs and the motivations behind the industry, and they are becoming better educated about their options. I have also witnessed a growing awareness among doctors, pharmacists, and other health care professionals in holistic therapies, but we still have a long way to go before mainstream medicine and natural medicine are fully integrated. As a traditionally trained pharmacist with a complementary back- ground in natural health, nutrition, and ﬁtness, my goal is to bridge the gap between the two worlds and in doing so, help people along their journey to optimal health. As a young teen I suffered from undiagnosed celiac disease, a genetic condition in which the body cannot digest gluten, which is a protein found in many grains. For several years, I experienced abdominal pain, bloating, weight loss, fatigue, visual impairment, hair 2 | Introduction loss, and skin rashes. Despite seeing several doctors, I did not get a proper diagnosis and was instead given large doses of unnecessary prescription medications. As my health continued to deteriorate, I developed both physical and emotional symptoms. What I didn’t know at the time was that gluten was destroying the absorptive surface of my intestines, causing mal- nutrition, wasting, and damage to vital organs. Finally, after much searching, we found a doctor who immediately recognized my symptoms as celiac disease and put me on a strict gluten-free diet. I was still quite fatigued, forgetful, and suffered with eczema, poor night vision, and lack of hair growth. I began taking therapeutic dosages of vitamins, minerals, and es- sential fatty acids to correct the deﬁciencies that I had experienced for so many years. Coping with a health problem at such a young age was a life-altering experience, and ﬁlled me with a passion for health and a willingness to look “outside the box” for answers. After high school, I studied science, pharmacy, and nutrition in Philadelphia and went on to build a holistic pharmacy practice in the Niagara area of Ontario. In my practice, I have worked with many people facing serious health challenges, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and depression, and I have seen how remarkably well the body can heal and repair when it is given the proper elements. My intention with this book is to have people refer to it for both prevention and treatment of health conditions, and then consult with their health care practitioner for proper guidance and monitoring. I must stress that the information in this book is not intended to diagnose or replace the advice of your doctor or health care provider.