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Peak plasma concentrations of brexpiprazole occur about 4 hours after oral ingestion order selegiline online from canada medications similar to cymbalta. Asenapine is formulated as a sublingual tablet to allow absorption directly across the oral mucosa purchase online selegiline treatment brachioradial pruritus. The drug carries a low risk for weight gain purchase generic selegiline medications 6 rights, diabetes order selegiline 5mg on line medications for fibromyalgia, or dyslipidemia and has few interactions with other agents. When asenapine is swallowed and absorbed from the intestine, it undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, making bioavailability very low (<2%). In contrast, when the drug is administered sublingually, it gets absorbed directly across the oral mucosa and thereby avoids first-pass metabolism. The risk for anticholinergic effects, prolactin elevation, and metabolic effects (weight gain, diabetes, dyslipidemia) is low. Blockade of H receptors can promote drowsiness, and blockade of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors can promote hypotension. Asenapine has local anesthetic properties and hence can numb the mouth when the sublingual tablets dissolve. Like other antipsychotic drugs, asenapine may increase mortality in older-adult patients with dementia-related psychosis. Rarely, patients have experienced severe allergic reactions, including angioedema and life-threatening anaphylaxis. Iloperidone is administered by mouth, and plasma levels peak 2 to 4 hours after dosing. The most common adverse effects are dry mouth, somnolence, fatigue, nasal congestion, and orthostatic hypotension, which can be severe during initial therapy. Iloperidone carries a low risk for diabetes and dyslipidemia but can cause significant weight gain. Like other antipsychotic drugs, iloperidone may increase mortality in older-adult patients with dementia-related psychosis. Accordingly, in patients taking such inhibitors, dosage of iloperidone should be reduced. Lurasidone [Latuda] is indicated for treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In clinical trials, dosages of 20, 40, 80, and 120 mg/day were clearly superior to placebo. In clinical trials, the most common adverse events were somnolence, akathisia, parkinsonism, nausea, agitation, and anxiety. Like other antipsychotic drugs, lurasidone may increase mortality in older-adult patients with dementia-related psychosis. Depot Antipsychotic Preparations Depot antipsychotics are long-acting, injectable formulations used for long-term maintenance therapy of schizophrenia. The objective is to prevent relapse and maintain the highest possible level of functioning. As a rule, the rate of relapse is lower with depot therapy than with oral therapy. Depot preparations are valuable for all patients who need long-term treatment—not just for patients who have difficulty with adherence. Eight depot preparations are currently available: haloperidol decanoate [Haldol Decanoate], fluphenazine decanoate (generic only), risperidone microspheres [Risperdal Consta], paliperidone palmitate [Invega Sustenna, Invega Trinza], aripiprazole [Abilify Maintena, Aristada], and olanzapine pamoate [Zyprexa Relprevv]. Because of this slow, steady absorption, plasma levels remain relatively constant between doses. Management of Schizophrenia Drug Therapy Drug therapy of schizophrenia has three major objectives: (1) suppression of acute episodes, (2) prevention of acute exacerbations, and (3) maintenance of the highest possible level of functioning. Drug Selection Like all other drugs, antipsychotics should be selected on the basis of effectiveness, tolerability, and cost. In 113 studies, clozapine was more effective than chlorpromazine in treating the core illness of schizophrenia. With regard to efficacy and safety, no single agent is clearly superior to the others. For a patient who is treatment resistant, a trial with clozapine might be reasonable. Older-adult patients require relatively small doses—typically 30% to 50% of those for younger patients. However, very large doses should generally be avoided because huge doses are probably no more effective than moderate doses and will increase the risk for side effects. During the initial phase, antipsychotics should be administered in divided daily doses. After an effective dosage has been determined, the entire daily dose can often be given at bedtime. Because antipsychotics cause sedation, bedtime dosing helps promote sleep while decreasing daytime drowsiness. Doses used early in therapy to gain rapid control of behavior are often very high. For long-term therapy, the dosage should be reduced to the lowest effective amount. Dilution may be performed with a variety of fluids, including milk, fruit juices, and carbonated beverages. Some oral liquids are light sensitive and must be stored in amber or opaque containers. Liquid formulations of phenothiazines can cause contact dermatitis; nurses and patients should take care to avoid skin contact with these preparations. This route has the additional advantage of preventing “cheeking” because doing so will simply cause the drug to be absorbed as intended. Intramuscular Intramuscular injection is generally reserved for patients with severe, acute schizophrenia and for long-term maintenance. Inhaled Loxapine [Adasuve] is a formula used for acute treatment of agitation associated with schizophrenia. Initial Therapy With adequate dosing, symptoms begin to resolve within 1 to 2 days. However, significant improvement takes 1 to 2 weeks, and a full response may not be seen for several months. During the first week, the goal is to reduce agitation, hostility, anxiety, and tension and to normalize patterns of sleeping and eating. The goals over this interval are increased socialization and improved self-care, mood, and formal thought processes. Of the patients who have not responded within 6 weeks, 50% are likely to respond by the end of 12 weeks. Maintenance Therapy Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder that usually requires prolonged treatment.
Beta blockers do so by preventing sympathetic activation of beta -adrenergic receptors on the heart cheap 5mg selegiline amex medications held before dialysis. Tolerance Tolerance to nitroglycerin-induced vasodilation can develop rapidly (over the course of a single day) purchase cheap selegiline line treatment 0f osteoporosis. Another possible mechanism is reversible oxidative injury to mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase discount 5 mg selegiline mastercard symptoms zithromax, an enzyme needed to convert nitroglycerin into nitric oxide generic 5 mg selegiline fast delivery medicine 8 iron stylings. Patients who develop tolerance to nitroglycerin display cross-tolerance to all other nitrates and vice versa. Development of tolerance is most likely with high-dose therapy and uninterrupted therapy. To prevent tolerance, nitroglycerin and other nitrates should be used in the lowest effective dosages; long-acting formulations (e. If pain occurs during the nitrate-free interval, it can be managed with sparing use of a short-acting nitrate (e. Preparations and Routes of Administration Nitroglycerin is available in several formulations for administration by several routes. This proliferation of dosage forms reflects efforts to delay hepatic metabolism and prolong therapeutic effects. All nitroglycerin preparations produce qualitatively similar responses; differences relate only to onset and duration of action (Table 43. With two preparations, effects begin rapidly (in 1–5 minutes) and then diminish in less than 1 hour. Only one preparation—sublingual isosorbide dinitrate tablets—has both a rapid onset and long duration. Of the rapid-acting nitrates, nitroglycerin (sublingual tablet or translingual spray) is preferred to the others for terminating an ongoing attack. Preparations with a rapid onset are employed to terminate an ongoing anginal attack. When used for this purpose, rapid-acting preparations are administered as soon as pain begins. Long-acting preparations are used to provide sustained protection against anginal attacks. To provide protection, they are administered on a fixed schedule (but one that permits at least 8 drug-free hours each day). Sublingual Tablets When administered sublingually, nitroglycerin is absorbed directly through the oral mucosa and into the bloodstream. Hence, unlike orally administered drugs, which must pass through the liver on their way to the systemic circulation, sublingual nitroglycerin bypasses the liver and thereby temporarily avoids inactivation. These doses are about 10 times lower than those required when nitroglycerin is dosed orally. Effects of sublingual nitroglycerin begin rapidly—in 1 to 3 minutes—and persist up to 1 hour. Because sublingual administration works fast, this route is ideal for (1) terminating an ongoing attack and (2) short-term prophylaxis when exertion is anticipated. To terminate an acute anginal attack, sublingual nitroglycerin should be administered as soon as pain begins. While awaiting emergency care, the patient can take 1 more tablet, and then a third tablet 5 minutes later. P a t i e n t E d u c a t i o n Sublingual Drug Administration Sublingual administration is unfamiliar to most patients. The patient should be instructed to place the tablet under the tongue and leave it there while it dissolves. To ensure good stability, the tablets should be stored moisture free at room temperature in their original container, which should be closed tightly after each use. Sustained-Release Oral Capsules Sustained-release oral capsules are intended for long-term prophylaxis only; these formulations cannot act fast enough to terminate an ongoing anginal attack. In theory, doses are large enough so that amounts of nitroglycerin sufficient to produce a therapeutic response will survive passage through the liver. Because they produce sustained blood levels of nitroglycerin, these formulations can cause tolerance. To reduce the risk for tolerance, these products should be taken only once or twice daily. Transdermal Delivery Systems Nitroglycerin patches contain a reservoir from which nitroglycerin is slowly released. The rate of release is constant and, depending on the patch used, can range from 0. Effects begin within 30 to 60 minutes and persist as long as the patch remains in place (up to 14 hours). This can be accomplished by applying a new patch each morning, leaving it in place for 12 to 14 hours, and then removing it in the evening. Because of their long duration, patches are well suited for sustained prophylaxis. Because patches have a delayed onset, they cannot be used to abort an ongoing attack. Translingual Spray Nitroglycerin can be delivered to the oral mucosa using a metered-dose spray device. Indications for nitroglycerin spray are the same as for sublingual tablets: suppression of an acute anginal attack and prophylaxis of angina when exertion is anticipated. As with sublingual tablets, no more than three doses should be administered within a 15- minute interval. Topical Ointment Topical nitroglycerin ointment is used for sustained protection against anginal attacks. The ointment is applied to the skin of the chest, back, abdomen, or anterior thigh. Nitroglycerin ointment (2%) is dispensed from a tube, and the length of the ribbon squeezed from the tube determines dosage. Discontinuing Nitroglycerin Long-acting preparations (transdermal patches, topical ointment, sustained- release oral tablets or capsules) should be discontinued slowly. Summary of Therapeutic Uses Acute Therapy of Angina For acute treatment of angina pectoris, nitroglycerin is administered in sublingual tablets and a translingual spray. Both formulations can be used to abort an ongoing anginal attack and to provide prophylaxis in anticipation of exertion. Sustained Therapy of Angina For sustained prophylaxis against angina, nitroglycerin is administered in the following formulations: transdermal patches, topical ointment, and sustained- release oral capsules. Isosorbide Mononitrate and Isosorbide Dinitrate Both of these drugs have pharmacologic actions identical to those of nitroglycerin. Both drugs are used for angina, both are taken orally, and both produce headache, hypotension, and reflex tachycardia. Differences between them relate only to route of administration and time course of action.
The management goals for those with delayed puberty are to initiate and sus- tain sexual maturation discount selegiline 5mg without a prescription medicine 666, prevent osteoporosis from hypoestrogenemia buy 5mg selegiline with amex treatment without admission is known as, and promote the full height potential order 5 mg selegiline otc treatment diverticulitis. Hormonal therapy and human growth hormone can be used to achieve these objectives cheap 5mg selegiline with amex symptoms 5 days past ovulation. Patients with hypergonadotropic hypogonad- ism presenting with delayed puberty should be started on unopposed est rogen for 2 to 3 years before a progestin is added. They are started on low-dose estrogen and then gradually increased every 3 months. Exposure to progestins during the fir st 2 t o 3 year s of est rogen t h er apy would lead t o abn or mal d evelopment of the breasts (tubular breast format ion). O nce the breast s are formed and are at Tanner st age 3 or 4, a progest in is added. Combinat ion of oral cont racept ives provides t he adequate amount of est rogen needed to prevent osteoporosis, and t he progest in protects against endometrial cancer. Patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with no apparent cause need imaging of t he brain to rule out a brain tumor. In n on -t r eat able con dit ion s su ch as gon ad al dysgen esis, est r ogen r eplace- ment is started then followed with combination estrogen/ progestin therapy. Pre co cio u s Pu b e r t y O n the other end of the spectrum, girls who develop secondary sexual character- ist ics t oo early are said t o have precocious pubert y. In general, t he definit ion is breast development prior to age 7, and in African-American women, prior to age 6. Cent ral causes can in clu d e br ain t u mor s, men in git is, h ydr oceph alu s, or h ead t r au ma. Per iph er al cau ses can in clu d e gr anu losa cell t u mor s of the ovar y, M cCu n e-Albr igh t syn d r om e, or adrenal tumors. If precocious puberty is untreated, the girl will be taller than her peers init ially, but due t o early long bone epiphyseal closure, t he eventual height will be short er. The patient’s mother notes that both of patient’s sisters had onset of breast development at age 10, and also all of her friends have already begun menstruating. Examination reveals Tanner stage I breast and pubic/ axillary hair, and is otherwise unremarkable. D evelo p m en t is wit h in n o r m al lim it s an d sh o u ld b e o b ser ved C. Which of the following laborat or y findings is likely t o be elevat ed in this pat ient? Breast tissue usually is infantile (Tanner stage I) with gonadal dysgenesis because no estrogen is produced; these patients are at risk for osteoporo- sis. Delayed puberty is defined as no secondary sexual characteristics by the age of 14 years. Primary amenorrhea is defined as no menarche by the age of 16 years in the presence of secondary sexual characteristics, or age 14 in the absence of secondary sexual characterist ics. This dist in guish es ovarian failure from a central nervous system dysfunction (central defect). Estrogen and progesterone levels are low; the prolactin, and thyroxin levels remain unchanged. H ad the patient had a karyotype similar to that in Turner syn- drome (45,X), another gonadal dysgenesis disorder, a gonadectomy on the st reak ovaries, would not be indicat ed. Interest ingly, only hypothyroidism causes precocious puberty with delayed bone age. All other et iologies of precocious pubert y are associat ed wit h accelerated bone age (bone age“older”than chronological age). The patient’s mother recalls a doctor mentioning that her daughter had a missing right kidney on an abdominal x-ray film. Most likely finding on pelvic examination: Blin d vagin al p ou ch or vagin al d imple. Know the definition of primary amenorrhea, that is, no menses by the age of 16 years. Know that the two most common causes of primary amenorrhea when there is normal breast development are müllerian agenesis and androgen insensitivity. Understand that a serum testosterone level or karyotype would differentiate the two conditions. Co n s i d e r a t i o n s This 18-year-old adolescent woman has never had a menstrual period; therefore, she has primary amenorrhea. Breast development con n ot es the pres- ence of est rogen, and axillary and pubic hair suggest s t he presence of androgens. The most likely diagnosis is müllerian agenesis because a significant fract ion of such pat ient s will have a urinary t ract abnormalit y. Also, wit h androgen insensit ivit y, t h ere is t ypically scant axillary and pubic hair since there is a defective androgen receptor. The diagnosis can be con- fir m ed wit h a ser u m t est ost er on e, wh ich would be n or mal in mü ller ian agen esis, and elevated (in t he normal male range) in androgen insensit ivit y. In both condi- tions, there is no uterus, tubes, or cervix, and a blind vaginal pouch or vaginal dimple. N otably, absence of breast development would point to a hypoestrogenic state such as gonadal dys- genesis ( Turner syndrome). After pregnancy is excluded, t he t wo most common etiologies that cause primary amenorrhea associated with normal breast development and an absent uterus are androgen insensitivity syndrome and müllerian agenesis (Table 55– 1). H owever, due to a defect in the andro- gen receptor synthesis or action, there is no formation of male internal or external gen it alia. T h e ext er n al gen it alia r em ain fem ale, as it occu r s in the absen ce of sex st eroids. T h ere are no int ernal female reproduct ive organs, and t he vagina is short or absent. W ithout androgenic opposition to the small circulating levels of estro- gen secr et ed by the gon ad s an d ad r en als, an d pr odu ced by p er iph er al conver sion of androstenedione, breast development is normal or enhanced. The abnormal int ra-abdominal gonads are at increased risk for malig- nancy, but this rarely occurs before puberty. After these events take place, usually around the age of 16 to 18 years, the gonads should be removed. The diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome should be suspected when a pat ient has primary amenorrhea, an absent uterus, nor- mal breast development, an d scant or absent pubic and axillary hair. T h e diagn osis can be con fir m ed wit h a kar yot yp e evalu at ion an d/ or elevat ed t est ost er on e levels (male normal range). T hey do, however, have normal funct ioning ovaries since t he ovaries are not müllerian st ructures, and have normal breast develop- ment. They also have normal pubic and axillary hair growth because there is no defect in their androgen receptors.
In addition order selegiline cheap medicine balls for sale, zoledronate can cause clinically significant reductions in serum levels of calcium selegiline 5 mg free shipping treatment 4 ringworm, phosphorus purchase selegiline 5 mg without a prescription symptoms estrogen dominance, and magnesium discount selegiline 5mg with visa treatment thesaurus. Accordingly, levels of these elements should be followed and corrected when indicated. Zoledronate has been associated with bone injury, most often osteonecrosis of the jaw, a condition characterized by local bone death and decreased bone strength. Other risk factors include cancer, cancer chemotherapy, use of systemic glucocorticoids, and poor oral hygiene. Zoledronate can cause dose-dependent kidney damage, which can progress to acute renal failure and, rarely, to death. Risk is increased by the following: • Chronic renal impairment • Advanced age • Dehydration (e. When not contraindicated, dosage varies depending on the underlying condition and creatinine clearance. To minimize risk, dosage should be kept low (5 mg or less per infusion), and the infusion should be slow (15 minutes or longer). To monitor for renal damage, creatinine clearance should be determined at baseline, before each dose, and periodically after each infusion. Rarely, zoledronate has been associated with serious atrial fibrillation, resulting in hospitalization. P a t i e n t E d u c a t i o n Bisphosphonates To minimize the risk for esophagitis, instruct patients to swallow the tablet whole with a full glass of water while sitting or standing upright. Explain that it is important to remain upright for at least 30 minutes (60 minutes with ibandronate). Instruct patients to take these drugs in the morning before eating or drinking anything other than water. Estrogen The basic pharmacology of estrogen, as well as postmenopausal estrogen therapy, is discussed in Chapter 48. When estrogen levels decline, either because of natural menopause or surgical removal of the ovaries, osteoclasts increase in number, causing bone resorption to increase dramatically. Estrogen replacement can restore the brake on osteoclast proliferation and can therefore suppress resorption. Despite the risks, estrogen is still approved for preventing and treating bone loss after menopause or surgical removal of the ovaries, because treatment reduces the overall risk for fractures by 24%. Estrogen is most effective when initiated immediately after menopause; however, treatment begun later in life can still offer significant protection. For providers and patients who prefer not to use estrogen for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, we have effective alternatives: raloxifene, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, and teriparatide. B l a c k B o x Wa r n i n g : E s t ro g e n Estrogen therapy is associated with an increased risk for endometrial cancer in women with a uterus who take unopposed estrogen, an increased risk for venous thromboembolic events (e. However, in contrast to estrogen, which promotes cancer of the breast and endometrium, raloxifene protects against these cancers. Because of its effects on bone, raloxifene is used to prevent and treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Because of its effects on breast tissue, the drug is used to reduce the risk for breast cancer. Raloxifene mimics the effects of estrogen on bone, lipid metabolism, and blood clotting and blocks estrogen effects in the breast and endometrium. However, owing to extensive first-pass metabolism, absolute bioavailability is below 2%. Therapeutic Uses Raloxifene offers significant benefits regarding osteoporosis and breast cancer but also poses a risk for serious thromboembolic events. Accordingly, women must carefully weigh the risks and benefits before choosing this drug. Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Raloxifene is used to prevent and treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Raloxifene reduces the risk for spinal fractures by 55%, but does not reduce the risk for fractures at other sites. Breast Cancer Raloxifene protects against estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer. Also, patients should minimize periods of restricted activity, as can happen when traveling or revising a pharmacology text. Raloxifene is contraindicated for patients with a history of venous thrombotic events. B l a c k B o x Wa r n i n g : R a l o x i f e n e Raloxifene is associated with an increased risk for venous thromboembolic events (e. In animal studies, doses below those used in humans have resulted in abortion, delayed fetal development, decreased neonatal survival, and anatomic abnormalities, including hydrocephaly and uterine hypoplasia. Although use during pregnancy is obviously no concern for postmenopausal patients, it can be a concern for younger women taking the drug to prevent breast cancer. Preparations, Dosage, and Administration Raloxifene [Evista] is available in 60-mg oral tablets. Women taking raloxifene to prevent or treat postmenopausal osteoporosis should ensure adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. P a t i e n t E d u c a t i o n Raloxifene Advise women taking raloxifene for osteoporosis to ensure adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. Instruct patients to avoid extended periods of restricted activity, as can happen when traveling. The drug has two actions: it (1) increases bone resorption by osteoclasts and (2) increases bone deposition by osteoblasts. Adverse effects included nausea, headache, arthralgias, back pain, and leg cramps. Orthostatic hypotension and associated dizziness may occur within 4 hours of injection, so the patient should be in a location where it is possible to lie down, if needed. Temporary increases in serum levels of calcium, magnesium, and uric acid may occur. B l a c k B o x Wa r n i n g : The r i p a r a t i d e Teriparatide causes osteosarcoma in animal testing. Preparations, Dosage, and Administration Teriparatide [Forteo] is supplied in special prefilled pen injectors that contain 600 mcg/2. For all indications, the recommended dosage is 20 mcg once daily by subQ injection into the anterior thigh or abdomen. Each pen can be used up to 28 days after the first injection, after which it should be discarded, even if some drug remains. Patients should store the pens cold—2° to 8°C (36°−46°F)—but not frozen, and should take them out of the cold only to make an injection. The cost for each syringe (a 28- day supply) in the United States is more than $2400, so treatment costs can be very expensive.