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Rowe and others suggested that although the current evidence does not support the routine use of intravenous magnesium sulfate in all patients with acute asthma order on line rogaine 2 mens health 3 bean chili, magnesium may benefit patients who present with severe disease (169) generic rogaine 2 60 ml online man health 4 you. In one study purchase cheap rogaine 2 online prostate-7 confidence inc, 135 asthmatics were randomized to 2 g magnesium sulfate intravenously or placebo after 30 minutes and followed for 4 hours ( 170) cheap rogaine 2 amex man health institute. Additional evidence supporting benefit in severe disease comes from a study of five mechanically ventilated asthmatics given magnesium ( 171). In this study, patients were given high doses of magnesium sulfate (10 20 g) over 1 hour, after which there was a significant decrease in peak airway pressure (43 32 cm H 2O) and in inspiratory flow resistance. Of interest, magnesium sulfate also may be of greater benefit in premenopausal women because estrogen augments the bronchodilating effect of magnesium ( 172). Nannini and colleagues recently evaluated the efficacy of inhaled magnesium sulfate (225 mg) versus normal saline as a vehicle for nebulized albuterol in a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of 35 patients who presented to the emergency room ( 173). For now, routine use is not justified, with the possible exception of patients with severe disease and premenopausal women. Heliox Heliox is a gas consisting of 20% oxygen and 80% helium (30%:70% and 40%:60% mixtures are also available). As the percentage of helium decreases, so does the benefit of breathing this gas blend. Concentrations of helium of less than 60% are not effective, precluding its use in patients requiring significant supplemental oxygen. Heliox is slightly more viscous than air, but significantly less dense, resulting in a more than threefold increase in kinematic viscosity (the ratio of gas viscosity to gas density) compared with air. Theoretically, this property decreases the driving pressure required for gas flow by two mechanisms. First, for any level of turbulent flow, breathing low-density gas decreases the pressure gradient required for flow. Second, heliox decreases the Reynold number favoring conversion of turbulent flow to laminar flow (174). Heliox promptly improves dyspnea, work of breathing, and arterial blood gas abnormalities in patients with upper airway obstruction ( 175). If heliox is effective, it may buy time for concurrent therapies to work, and thereby avert the need for intubation in some cases. Of theoretical concern is the potential for heliox to mask worsening airflow obstruction, so that there may be less time (and no margin for error) to control the airway. Whether heliox augments the bronchodilator effect of inhaled b agonists compared with delivery in air is unclear. Data are available demonstrating a benefit to heliox as a driving gas (180), but there are also data to the contrary ( 181). Other Medications Leukotriene modifiers have been inadequately studied in acute asthma. In a preliminary report, Silverman and colleagues demonstrated a trend toward fewer hospitalizations in patients who received zafirlukast 160 mg in addition to standard therapies ( 182). Intubation Respiratory arrest, patient deterioration with exhaustion, and changes in mental status all indicate the need for intubation. In breathing patients, the decision to intubate ultimately relies on the judgment of an experienced clinician as to whether a patient can safely maintain spontaneous respirations until bronchodilator/antiinflammatory therapy takes hold. Oral intubation is preferred because it allows for placement of a large endotracheal tube important to decrease airway resistance and facilitate removal of tenacious mucus plugs. Nasal intubation is safe in most patients and may be preferred in an awake patient anticipated to be difficult to ventilate and intubate in the supine position (e. Several problems are associated with nasal intubation, including the need for a smaller endotracheal tube and the higher incidence of nasal polyps and sinusitis in asthmatics. Postintubation Hypotension The time immediately following intubation can be extremely difficult for the patient with severe airflow obstruction, particularly because airflow obstruction may continue to deteriorate during the first 24 hours of mechanical ventilation, possibly due to irritant effects of tracheal cannulation. Hypotension has been reported in 25% to 35% of patients following intubation ( 187). First, there is loss of vascular tone due to a direct effect of sedation and loss of sympathetic activity. Second, many patients are hypovolemic because of high insensible losses and decreased oral fluid intake during their exacerbation. A trial of hypopnea (2 3 breaths/min) or apnea in a preoxygenated patient may deflate the lung and demonstrate this pathophysiology. After 30 to 60 seconds of hypoventilation, intrathoracic pressure decreases, allowing for greater blood return to the right atrium. Blood pressure increases, heart rate decreases falls, and the inspired breath becomes easier to deliver. If such a trial does not quickly restore cardiopulmonary stability, consideration should be given to tension pneumothorax. Tension pneumothoraces may have been responsible for more than 6% of deaths of patients who required mechanical ventilation for severe asthma (187). When pneumothorax is present, the contralateral lung deserves close attention because unilateral pneumothorax causes preferential ventilation of the contralateral lung, increasing the risk of bilateral pneumothoraces. Management of this situation consists of hypoventilation, volume resuscitation, and chest tubes placed bilaterally. Because standard treatment for airway obstruction has usually been maximized in the intubated patient, expiratory time and tidal volume become important variables during ventilator management. Minute ventilation and inspiratory flow rates determine exhalation time ( 188,189). To achieve this minute ventilation, we recommend a respiratory rate of 12 to 14 breaths/min combined with a tidal volume of 7 to 8 mL/kg. The use of relatively low tidal volumes avoids excessive peak lung inflation, which may occur even when there is acceptably low minute ventilation. Shortening the inspiratory time by use of a high inspiratory flow rate is another way to prolong expiratory time. High inspiratory flow rates increase peak airway pressure by elevating airway resistive pressure. Importantly, peak airway pressures per se do not correlate with morbidity or mortality. The utility of this measure is limited by the need for paralysis and the fact that most clinicians and respiratory therapists are unfamiliar with expiratory gas collection. Pplat is an estimate of average end-inspiratory alveolar pressures that is easily determined by stopping flow at end-inspiration. It is obtained by measuring airway opening pressure during an end-expiratory hold maneuver. Unfortunately, both measures are problematic and neither has been validated as a predictor of complications.
Selenium deciency Selenium deciency has been linked to adverse mood states (29) order rogaine 2 60 ml fast delivery prostate cancer quality of life. Selenium supplementation together with other vitamins has been found benecial in the treatment of mood lability (30) buy rogaine 2 60 ml on-line prostate oncology esthetics. Generally purchase rogaine 2 60 ml line man health about, the scientic information about selenium and neurological disorders remains scarce best rogaine 2 60 ml prostate cancer diet plan. There are, however, still a number of obscure neurological disorders occurring in localized epidemics or endemic foci in tropical countries. Most of these syndromes consist of various combinations of peripheral polyneuropathy and signs of spinal cord involvement. Syndromes of ataxic polyneuropathy Reports on a form of ataxic polyneuropathy described by Strachan and later by Scott led to the recognition of a tropical neurological syndrome characterized by painful polyneuropathy, orogenital dermatitis and amblyopia, known as Strachan s syndrome. During the Second World War, prisoners of war in tropical and subtropical regions suffered from similar syndromes with burning feet, numbness and loss of vision with pallor of the temporal border of the optic disks. Since the Second World War, ataxic polyneuropathies have been reported from many tropical and subtropical areas (31). Their cassava-based diet was suggested to be the cause, as the students improved during holidays. The cyanide-yielding capac- ity of bitter cassava and its toxic effects were described at that time. This syndrome of painful polyneuropathy, ataxia and blurred vision was extensively studied in Nigeria by Osuntokun (33). The diagnostic criteria used for this tropical ataxic neuropathy were the presence of two of the following: myelopathy, bilateral optic atrophy, bilateral sensorineural deafness, and symmetrical peripheral polyneuropathy. Men and women were equally affected, with a peak incidence in the fth and sixth decades of life. When discussing the neurological syndromes resembling Nigerian ataxic neuropathy described from different parts of the world, Osuntokun pointed out that it is unlikely that the same specic etiological factor is involved in all places. In Nigeria, tropical ataxic neuropathy has been shown to persist also into this millennium (34). Syndromes of spastic paraparesis The second clinical group of tropical myeloneuropathies proposed by Romn (31) is comprised of syndromes with spastic paraparesis as the main feature. Besides paraparesis as a sequel of extrinsic cord compression resulting from trauma or tuberculosis, several syndromes with spastic paraparesis have been reported in epidemics or endemic foci throughout the world. A third form of spastic paraparesis with abrupt onset has been reported in epidemic outbreaks in Africa. Clinically and epidemiologically it is similar to lathyrism but without any association with consumption of L. Konzo has been reported only from poor rural communities in Africa; it is characterized by the abrupt onset of an isolated and symmetric spastic paraparesis which is permanent but non-progressive. The name derives from the local designation used by the Congolese population affected by the rst reported outbreak in 1936. Outbreaks of konzo are described from Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, northern Mozambique and the United Republic of Tanzania. Konzo has been associated with exclusive consumption of insufciently processed bitter cassava in epidemiological studies (42). It may be precipitated by poor nutrition and toxins (especially smoking and alcohol) but genetic predisposal is also an important factor. Most cases of nutritional amblyopia are encountered in disadvantaged countries (9). Typically, toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy is progressive, with bilateral sym- metrical painless visual loss causing central or cecocentral scotoma. Nevertheless, early detection and prompt management may ameliorate and even prevent severe visual decit. Alcohol-related neurological disorders Alcohol and other drugs play a signicant role in the onset and course of neurological disorders. As toxic agents, these substances directly affect nerve cells and muscles, and therefore have an impact on the structure and functioning of both the central and peripheral nervous systems. For example, long-term use of ethanol is associated with damage to brain structures which are responsible for cognitive abilities (e. In people with a history of chronic alcohol consumption the following abnormalities have been ob- served: cerebral atrophy or a reduction in the size of the cerebral cortex, reduced supply of blood to this section of the brain which is responsible for higher functions, and disruptions in the func- tioning of neurotransmitters or chemical messengers. These changes may account for decits in higher cortical functioning and other abnormalities which are often symptoms of alcohol-related neurological disorders. Fetal alcohol syndrome The role of alcohol in fetal alcohol syndrome has been known for many years: the condition affects some children born to women who drank heavily during pregnancy. The symptoms of fetal alco- hol syndrome include facial abnormalities, neurological and cognitive impairments, and decient growth with a wide variation in the clinical features (44). Not much is known about the prevalence in most countries but, in the United States, available data show that the prevalence is between 0. Though there is little doubt about the role of alcohol in this condition, it is not clear at what level of drinking and during what stage of pregnancy it is most likely to occur. Hence the best advice to pregnant women or those contemplating pregnancy seems to be to abstain from drinking, because without alcohol the disorder will not occur. In its usual form it starts in an insidious, progressive way with signs located at the distal ends of the lower limbs: night cramps, bizarre sensations of the feet and the sufferer is quickly fatigued when walking. This polyneuropathy evolves to a complete form with permanent pain in the feet and legs. The signs of evolution of alcoholic polyneuropathy are represented by the decit of the leg muscles leading to abnormal walk, exaggerated pain (compared to burning, at any contact) and skin changes. The onset of the peripheral neuropathy depends on the age of the patient, the duration of the abuse and also the amount of alcohol consumed. The excessive abuse of this substance determines the central and/or peripheral nervous lesions. Wernicke s encephalopathy Wernicke s encephalopathy is the acute consequence of a vitamin B1 deciency in people with severe alcohol abuse. It is due to very poor diet, intestinal malabsorption and loss of liver thiamine stores. The onset may coincide with an abstinence period and is generally marked by somnolence and mental confusion; which gradually worsens, together with cerebellar signs, hypertonia, pa- ralysis and/or ocular signs. The prognosis depends on how quickly the patient is given high-dose vitamin B1 (by intravenous route, preferably). A delay or an absence of treatment increases the risk of psychiatric sequelae (memory disorders and/or intellectual deterioration). If the treatment is too late, the consequences could be an evolution to a Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome, a dementia. Alcohol and epilepsy Alcohol is associated with different aspects of epilepsy, ranging from the development of the condition in chronic heavy drinkers and dependent individuals to an increased number of seizures in people already with the condition. Alcohol aggravates seizures in people undergoing withdrawal and seizure medicines might interfere with tolerance for alcohol, thereby increasing its effect. Though small amounts of alcohol might be safe, people suffering from epilepsy should be advised to abstain from consuming this agent. After an episode of weeks of uninterrupted drinking, sudden abstinence may lead to epileptic seizures and severe coma, delirium tremens.
Antihistamines are excreted in breast milk and therefore infants of nursing mothers who were taking first-generation antihistamines have been reported to experience drowsiness and irritability generic rogaine 2 60 ml with visa prostate with grief definition. Studies evaluating these agents in the treatment of children with otitis media and upper respiratory infections have found they offer no significant benefit when used as solo agents (95 order cheap rogaine 2 on line mens health 6 pack challenge 2012,96 and 97) 60 ml rogaine 2 with visa mens health 5 day workout. However discount rogaine 2 60 ml overnight delivery mens health december 2013, children with recurrent otitis media and a strong family history of allergies should be evaluated by an allergist to identify potential environmental triggers. The use of second-generation over first-generation antagonists as first-line agents has previously been considered premature by many experts. If a first-generation agent is taken on a regular basis at bedtime, its sedative side effects are often well tolerated by many patients. However, because a large segment of patients do not tolerate these agents, they require treatment with second-generation nonsedating agents. Impairment of these functions increases indirect costs associated with the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Indirect costs include missed days from work or school and decreased concentration and performance while at work, resulting in overall decreased productivity ( 3,42). However, if individuals have nonallergic rhinitis with or without an allergic component manifested as severe postnasal drainage, it may be necessary to use first-generation antihistamines with or without decongestants to take advantage of their anticholinergic drying effects. In these situations, it is best to dose the sedating antihistamine at bedtime because the sedative carryover effect the following morning of these agents does not usually significantly impair cognitive performance. In general, it is important to educate the patient about the advantages and disadvantages of sedating and nonsedating antihistamines in the management of specific allergic diseases. Some patients become drowsy with even 2 mg of chlorpheniramine, so that second-generation antihistamines should be used instead. Associated anticholinergic side effects include dry mouth, blurred vision, and urinary retention ( 99). First-generation agents also potentiate the effects of benzodiazepines and alcohol ( 10,99). Cyproheptadine, a piperidine, has the unique effect of causing weight gain in some patients (16). Intentional and accidental overdose, although uncommon, has been reported with these drugs ( 10,14). Even with normal doses, it is not unusual for children to experience a paradoxic excitatory reaction. Malignant cardiac arrhythmias have been known to occur with overdoses, emphasizing the need to act expeditiously to counteract the toxic effect of these agents ( 10,14,99). Because these agents are secreted in breast milk, caution should be exercised using these agents in lactating women to avoid adverse effects in the newborn ( 99). Sedation and the side effects associated with first-generation agents have been noted to occur, but to no greater extent than with placebo ( 10,14,101). Astemizole, like cyproheptadine, was associated with increased appetite and weight gain ( 10). Loratadine and fexofenadine have similar side effect profiles and have not been found to cause cardiotoxicity ( 3). Cetirizine is considered a low sedating antihistamine but is generally well tolerated by most patients. This phenomenon has been speculated to occur because of autoinduction of hepatic metabolism, resulting in an accelerated clearance rate of the antihistamine ( 103). Short-term studies evaluating tolerance to second-generation agents have found no change in their therapeutic efficacy after 6 to 8 weeks of regular use ( 108,109). Studies up to 12 weeks found no evidence that second-generation agents cause autoinduction of hepatic metabolism leading to rapid excretion rates and drug tolerance ( 42). The clinical efficacy of these agents in the skin and treatment of allergic rhinitis does not decrease with chronic use. The decongestants used in most preparations today predominantly include phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, phenylephrine hydrochloride, and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride. These agents have saturated benzene rings without 3- or 4-hydroxyl groups, which is the reason for their weak a-adrenergic effect, improved oral absorption, and duration of action. The early agents, which were developed for their gastric acid inhibitory properties, were either not strong enough for clinical use or hazardous because of serious associated side effects (e. Cimetidine (Tagamet) was introduced to the United States in 1982 and has been proved safe and effective in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease (15). For example, ranitidine (Zantac) has a furan ring, whereas famotidine (Pepcid) and nizatidine (Axid) are composed of thiozole rings ( 15). H2 antagonists act primarily by competitive inhibition of the H 2 receptors, with the exception of famotidine, which works noncompetitively (15). The four available H2 antagonists all have potent H2 antagonistic properties, varying mainly in their pharmacokinetics, and adverse effects such as drug interactions. Numerous studies have been undertaken to examine the clinical utility of H 2 antagonists in allergic and immunologic diseases. Generally, H2 antagonists have limited or no utility in treating allergen-induced and histamine-mediated diseases in humans ( 118,119,120 and 121). One notable exception to this rule may be their use in combination with H 1 antagonists in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria ( 122). The studies evaluating the clinical efficacy of H 2 antagonists in allergic and immunologic disorders are extensively reviewed elsewhere ( 3,117). These actions by histamine could not be suppressed by H 1 or H2 antagonists, leading researchers to postulate the existence of a third class of histamine receptors. They both have demonstrated H 3 receptor selectivity but remain strictly for experimental use (9). Chemical modifications of these early agents have yielded the second-generation antihistamines, which are of equal antagonistic efficacy but have fewer side effects because of their lipophobic structures. Newer nonsedating antihistamines, which are metabolites or isomers of existing agents, are now under development. H 2 receptor antagonists have been found extremely useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. However, they have been disappointing in the treatment of allergic and immunologic disorders in humans. Newer selective nonsedating H1 antagonists and dual-action antihistamines, because of their lower side-effect profiles, have provided therapeutic advantages over first-generation agents for long-term management of allergic rhinitis. Because there are virtually dozens of antihistamine preparations available with or without decongestants, it is recommended that physicians become familiar with all aspects of a few agents from each structural class. Analysis of triggering events in mast cells for immunoglobulin E-mediated histamine release. Blockade of histamine-mediated increased in microvascular permeability by H 1- and H2-receptor antagonists. Medicinal chemistry and dynamic structure-activity analysis in the discovery of drugs acting as histamine H 2-receptors. The pharmacokinetics and antihistaminic of the H 1 receptor antagonist hydroxyzine. Inhibition of histamine release from human lung in vitro by antihistamines and related drugs. Evaluation of sustained-action chlorpheniramine-pseudoephedrine dosage form in humans.
Drugs most commonly implicated include sulfonamides generic 60 ml rogaine 2 visa mens health nutrition guide 2013, bromides buy rogaine 2 60 ml with amex man health base multiple sclerosis, and oral contraceptives purchase rogaine 2 on line amex prostate mri radiology. Treatment with corticosteroids is effective but is seldom necessary after withdrawal of the offending drug buy rogaine 2 60 ml without prescription prostate cancer movember. Pulmonary Manifestations Bronchial Asthma Pharmacologic agents are a common cause of acute exacerbations of asthma, which, on occasion, may be severe or even fatal. Drug-induced bronchospasm most often occurs in patients with known asthma but may unmask subclinical reactive airways disease. It may occur as a result of inhalation, ingestion, or parenteral administration of a drug. Although asthma may occur in drug-induced anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid reactions, bronchospasm is usually not a prominent feature; laryngeal edema is far more common and is a potentially more serious consideration. Airborne exposure to drugs during manufacture or during final preparation in the hospital or at home has resulted in asthma. Occupational exposure to some of these agents has caused asthma in nurses, for example, psyllium in bulk laxatives ( 150), and in pharmaceutical workers following exposure to various antibiotics (151). Spiramycin used in animal feeds has resulted in asthma among farmers, pet shop owners, and laboratory animal workers who inhale dusts from these products. Both oral and ophthalmic preparations that block b-adrenergic receptors may induce bronchospasm among individuals with asthma or subclinical bronchial hyperreactivity. This may occur immediately after initiation of treatment, or rarely after several months or years of therapy. Timolol has been associated with fatal bronchospasm in patients using this ophthalmic preparation for glaucoma. Occasional subjects without asthma have developed bronchoconstriction after treatment with b-blocking drugs ( 154). One should also recall that b blockers may increase the occurrence and magnitude of immediate generalized reactions to other agents ( 54). Cholinesterase inhibitors, such as echothiophate ophthalmic solution used to treat glaucoma, and neostigmine or pyridostigmine used for myasthenia gravis, have produced bronchospasm. This occurs in 10% to 25% of patients taking these drugs, usually within the first 8 weeks of treatment, although it may develop within days or may not appear for up to 1 year (156). The cough typically resolves within 1 to 2 weeks after discontinuing the medication; persistence longer than 4 weeks should trigger a more comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. Sulfites and metabisulfites can provoke bronchospasm in a subset of asthmatic patients. The incidence is probably low but may be higher among those who are steroid dependent (160). These agents are used as preservatives to reduce microbial spoilage of foods, as inhibitors of enzymatic and nonenzymatic discoloration of foods, and as antioxidants that are often found in bronchodilator solutions. The mechanism responsible for sulfite-induced asthmatic reactions may be the result of the generation of sulfur dioxide, which is then inhaled. However, sulfite-sensitive asthmatic patients are not more sensitive to inhaled sulfur dioxide than are other asthmatic patients (161). The diagnosis of sulfite sensitivity may be established on the basis of sulfite challenge. Bronchospasm in these patients may be treated with metered-dose inhalers or nebulized bronchodilator solutions containing negligible amounts of metabisulfites. Although epinephrine does contain sulfites, its use in an emergency situation even among sulfite-sensitive asthmatic patients should not be discouraged (161). Pulmonary Infiltrates with Eosinophilia An immunologic mechanism is probably operative in two forms of drug-induced acute lung injury, namely hypersensitivity pneumonitis and pulmonary infiltrates associated with peripheral eosinophilia. A lung biopsy demonstrates interstitial and alveolar inflammation consisting of eosinophils and mononuclear cells. The outcome is usually excellent, with rapid clinical improvement upon drug cessation and corticosteroid therapy. Nitrofurantoin may also induce an acute syndrome, in which peripheral eosinophilia is present in about one third of patients. However, this reaction differs from the drug-induced pulmonary infiltrates with peripheral eosinophilia syndrome just described because tissue eosinophilia is not present, and the clinical picture frequently includes the presence of a pleural effusion ( 164). Typically, the onset of the acute pulmonary reaction begins a few hours to 7 to 10 days after commencement of treatment. A chest radiograph may show diffuse or unilateral involvement, with an alveolar or interstitial process that tends to involve lung bases. A small pleural effusion, usually unilateral, is seen in about one third of patients. Knowledge of this reaction can prevent unnecessary hospitalization for suspected pneumonia. Upon withdrawal of the drug, resolution of the chest radiograph findings occurs within 24 to 48 hours. Although the acute nitrofurantoin-induced pulmonary reaction is rarely fatal, a chronic reaction that is uncommon has a higher mortality rate of 8%. The chronic reaction mimics idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis clinically, radiologically, and histologically. Of the cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, methotrexate is the most common cause of a noncytotoxic pulmonary reaction in which peripheral blood, but not tissue, eosinophilia may be present (165). Fever, malaise, headache, and chills may overshadow the presence of a nonproductive cough and dyspnea. The chest radiograph demonstrates a diffuse interstitial process, and 10% to 15% of patients develop hilar adenopathy or pleural effusions. Recovery is usually prompt upon withdrawal of methotrexate, but it can occasionally be fatal. Although an immunologic mechanism has been suggested, some patients who have recovered may be able to resume methotrexate without adverse sequelae. Bleomycin and procarbazine, chemotherapeutic agents usually associated with cytotoxic pulmonary reactions, have occasionally produced a reaction similar to that of methotrexate. Pneumonitis and Fibrosis Slowly progressive pneumonitis or fibrosis is usually associated with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs, such as bleomycin. However, some drugs, such as amiodarone, may produce a clinical picture similar to hypersensitivity pneumonitis without the presence of eosinophilia. In many cases, this category of drug-induced lung disease is often dose dependent. Amiodarone, an important therapeutic agent in the treatment of many life-threatening arrhythmias, has produced an adverse pulmonary reaction in about 6% of patients, with 5% to 10% of these reactions being fatal ( 166). Symptoms rarely develop in a patient receiving less than 400 mg/day for less than 2 months.
The airway mucosa becomes red and oedematous cheap rogaine 2 60 ml prostate cancer zinc, there Specic complications following thoracic surgery in- is often an overlying mucopurulent exudate purchase rogaine 2 online pills prostate 40 gpa scale. Respiratory infections Investigations Acute bronchitis These are usually not required generic 60 ml rogaine 2 with mastercard prostate 1, there may be a mild neu- trophil leucocytosis even in viral infections cheap 60 ml rogaine 2 with visa prostate blood test. Patients presenting with acute bronchitis during an inuenza epidemic may ben- Incidence et from treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor if Very common. Only if secondary bacterial infection is suspected should a course of antibiotics be Age prescribed. Any Prognosis Sex The illness usually lasts up to a week in healthy adults, M = F prolonged symptoms may occur. Conditions impairing Defence mechanism defence mechanism Pneumonia Cough Coma/anaesthesia Respiratory depression Denition Neuromuscular weakness Pneumonia is an infective, inammatory disease of the Ciliary function Smoking, inuenza, colds lung parenchyma. Bronchiectasis (including cystic brosis and Kartagener s syndrome) Aetiology Ciliary function can also be It is useful to classify pneumonia according to the impaired mechanically by causative organism or the clinical setting, e. This helps to determine the choice of carcinoma Phagocytosis Smoking antibiotics for treatment. Alcohol Pneumonia most often occurs in children and the el- Hypoxia derly, but may also affect young, t adults. Viralpneumonia is less common, but bacterial pneumo- r Atypical pneumonias cause predominantly interstitial nia may be a secondary complication. Causes include the atypi- Pathophysiology cal bacteria Chlamydia, Coxiella, Mycoplasma and Le- The infection may be as a result of impairment of one or gionella. It is predisposed to by immobility and dation (such as dullness to percussion, increased vocal viral infections which lead to retention of secretions resonance, bronchial breathing) but even if frank con- especially in the lower lobes. The infection is centred solidation is not present, most patients have tachypnoea on the bronchi and bronchioles and spreads to involve (>20 breaths/minute) and crackles. In atypical pneu- adjacent alveoli, which become consolidated with an monia the signs of consolidation in the lung are often acute inammatory exudate. Red hepatisation Organisation of the uid into a brin mesh containing red cells, neutrophils and bacteria. Grey hepatisation Clearance of the red blood cells and neutrophils and predomination of macrophages in an attempt to clear the remaining bacteria. Resolution The brin meshwork is broken down, neutrophil debris is ingested by macrophages which are cleared through the lymphatics. The air spaces are lled with an acute 6weeks to ensure resolution, and to exclude any un- inammatory exudate causing the lung to be rm and derlyinglesionsuchascarcinomacausingobstruction. Several identiable secretions,analgesiaforpleuriticpainwherenecessary stages are seen in a pneumococcal lobar pneumonia andoxygenifthereishypoxia(guidedbyarterialblood (see Table 3. Outcome depends greatly on the age of the patient and r The white cell count will normally demonstrate a neu- concurrent disease (including diabetes mellitus, chronic trophilia. If patients require admission, sputum and renal failure, congestive heart failure and underlying res- blood cultures should be taken and specic serologi- piratory disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary cal tests are available for Legionella and other atypical disease). If severe sepsis or in a neutropenic patient combination Pseudomonas, Proteus) 60% piperacillin/ tazobactam and gentamicin may be used Strep. Intermediate coexisting chronic disease, hypoxia (PaO2 < 8kPaor ratesoftuberculosisoccurinCentralandSouthAmerica, oxygen saturation < 92%), bilateral or multilobe in- Eastern Europe and Northern Africa. Ascoreof2ormorecorefeaturessuggestaseverepneu- Aetiology monia with indication for initial combined antibiotic M. It is spread by coughing up of live bacilli after invasion of the disease into a main bronchus (open tu- berculosis), which are then inhaled. Approximately 7000 new cases a year in the United r Theemergenceofmultipledrugresistanceduetonon- Kingdom and rising throughout Europe and the United States. It may occur at any time from weeks just below the pleura in the apex of the upper lobe or up to years after the original infection. It matory process forms the Ghon focus usually just differs from primary infection in its immunopathol- beneath the pleura. The lymph nodes are rarely involved, and there is lymph nodes at the lung hilum, and excite an immune reactivation of the immune response in the tissues. This pattern forms the primary r Inthelung,thebacteriahaveapreferencefortheapices complex with infection at the periphery of the lung (higher pO2), and form an apical lung lesion known and enlarged peribronchial lymph nodes. It begins as a small caseating r The outcome of the primary infection depends on the tuberculous granuloma, histologically similar to the balance between the virulence of the organism and Ghon focus, with destruction of lung tissue and cavi- the strength of the host response (see Table 3. T cells are re-induced by the secondary infec- the host can mount an active cell mediated immune tion, with activation of macrophages, and exactly as response the infection may be completely cleared. Collagen is healing of the apical region with collagen de- is deposited around these, often becoming calcied. This is called a progres- tissue, thinning of the collagen wall and increasing sive primary infection. Coughing disperses these bacilli into the at- Poor immune system eg Good immune response, e. This disease is sometimes Use of appropriate antibiotics called galloping consumption. By that time there may be no evidence of tu- comesinfectedbymiliarydisseminationwithmultiple berculosis elsewhere. The hypersensitivity reaction may produce patient mounts a good immune response, organisms atransient pleural effusion or erythema nodosum. Microscopy Formal culture of material is the only way of accu- The characteristic lesion, the tubercle (granuloma) con- rately determining virulence and antibiotic sensitivity sists of a central area of caseous tissue necrosis within and should be attempted in every case, results may which are viable mycobacteria. It relies on the hypersensitivity reaction, usually heals spontaneously but occasionally may per- and is rarely helpful in the diagnosis of tuberculosis: sist giving rise to bronchiectasis particularly of the i The Tine test and Heaf test are for screening: 4/6 middle lobe (Brock s Syndrome). If the spots are conuent, logicalfractures,particularlyofthespinetogetherwith the test is positive, indicating exposure. The reaction is read at Investigations 48 72 hours and is said to be positive if the indura- r An abnormal chest X-ray is often found incidentally tion is 10 mm or more in diameter, negative if less in the absence of symptoms, but it is very rare for a than 5 mm. The X-ray shows puried protein derivative this can indicate active patchy or nodular shadowing in the upper zone with infection requiring treatment. In an immunocom- brosis and loss of volume; calcication and cavita- promised host (such as chronic renal failure, lym- tion may also be present. Human immunity depends largely on the haemag- niazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide, and a further glutinin (H) antigen and the neuraminidase (N) antigen 4months of rifampicin and isoniazid alone. Major shifts in these antigenic re- taken 30 minutes before breakfast to aid absorption. Thesecancauseapandemic,whereasantigenicdrift organism is sensitive for a full 6 months to avoid de- causes the milder annual epidemics. Other upper and lower respiratory symptoms to6weeks after birth (without prior skin testing) in ar- may develop. Individuals are infective for 1 day prior to eas with a high incidence of tuberculosis. Less commonly, secondary Five per cent of patients do not respond to therapy, only Staph. Inuenza A causes worldwide annual epidemics and is Retrospective diagnosis can be made by a rise in spe- infamous for the much rarer pandemics, the most seri- ciccomplement-xingantibodyorhaemagglutininan- ous of which occurred in 1918 when 40 million people tibody measured 2 weeks apart, but this is usually un- died worldwide.
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