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The precise nutrients that Most companion and aviary birds do not pick at skin may be missing in the diet have not beendefined cheap periactin online visa allergy forecast galveston, but injuries (see Chapter 16) cheap periactin 4mg on-line allergy symptoms yahoo. Complete reso- “stress-related” dermatitis has been reported in love- lution may not occur for several months after these birds discount periactin 4mg visa allergy forecast edmonton alberta, cockatoos and budgerigars order periactin visa allergy shots alternative. Lesions may also be noted in the proventer and in the inter- scapular regions of the body. Outbreaks of ulcerative dermati- tis affecting patagial membranes have been de- scribed. In one outbreak, 60% of the lovebirds in a flock were affected, and the progression of the dis- ease suggested an infectious agent. Sec- ondary bacterial or fungal infections should be treated with appropriate topical medications. Pruritic skin lesions and ulcerative der- bride or control hemorrhage associated with these matitis in cockatiels appear to be associated with primary malnu- lesions. In this case, giardia could not be documented and the bird responded to a change in diet. The tail feathers were replace the normally elastic patagial tissue with scar transected to reduce the pressure on the postventer skin. The tissue, which may make the bird more susceptible to lesions were cleansed daily with chlorhexidine solution and were future lesions. This lesion is common in mal- occur in heavy-bodied birds (African Grey and Mealy nourished birds and may begin when a bird with an Amazon Parrots) that have had improper wing trims. The A bird that attempts to fly from a high perch and has impact of the tail with the ground causes a hyperex- no lift may land on its sternum, resulting in a bruise tension of the rectrices and places excessive pressure or open wound over the cranial portion of the keel. The skin wounds should be treated as discussed Disorders Affecting the Feet and Legs under general therapy for integumentary lesions, Skin on the legs may be damaged by bands (rings) or, and several of the clipped primary and secondary in the case of falconers’ birds, by badly fitted leather feathers from each wing should be removed to stimu- jesses. These new feathers can occur and impair healing, particularly when a will provide the bird with the necessary lift to pre- foreign object is constantly in contact with the vent further injury. Supportive dressing (see Chapter 16) will keep the wound clean care is successful in most minor cases and the lesions 8 and moist and permit regular visual inspection. Pox lesions on the feet and legs are characterized by Birds with chronic ulcerative dermatitis in the cau- dry, brown plaques. Other viral infections appear to dal aspect of the postventer region may be presented be rare, but a herpesvirus has been implicated in skin with a history of blood-tinged excrement. The another collection were introduced to the wounds were debrided and flushed repeat- nursery. The fact that part of the distal edly with copious amounts of sterile saline feather is normal indicates that there was solution. Burns on the legs and feet of a goose were cleaned and treated with silvadene cream Color 24. This photograph, taken two weeks af- Feather cysts are common in canaries, par- ter the initial burns, shows a healthy bed of ticularly the Norwich, Crested, Crest-bred granulation tissue over the burns, and the and new color canaries that have “double- bird healed with no complications. A mature, male budgerigar with dermatitis was presented for progressive shivering Color 24. The bird had been treated Split section of a feather cyst showing the with an over-the-counter, oil-based antibi- accumulation of cellular debris in multiple otic. Sev- liferative yellowish-colored lesions on the eral areas of self-mutilation were present foot of a canary. The bird was presented including both feet and legs and the cervical with a shifting leg lameness. The feathers returned to normal color Brown hypertrophy of the cere in a male with subsequent molts. This syndrome is believed to be caused by imbalances in the ratio of sex Color 24. Ulcerative lesions were present with an acute onset of picking at the feet on the cranial edge of both propatagial and legs. The cause of this bird’s problem chronic ulcerative dermatitis (and wing could not be determined, but it responded splinting), but many of the feather follicles to general dermatologic therapy. Necrotic digits in adult passerine birds are One pad was ulcerated, and a thick, green- commonly caused by fibers that wrap ish-yellow discharge was present in the around the toe. The necrotic material examining the proximal edge of the affected was surgically removed from both feet and digit under a dissecting or operating micro- the wounds were packed with antibiotic- scope. In these latter birds, the lesions may spon- volving cracking of the feet that is responsive to high taneously resolve when the clients stop smoking or doses of biotin has been documented in flamingos, wash their hands before handling the birds. Other ratites and waders (see Color 48) (Greenwood A, cases will respond to a change in diet, frequent expo- unpublished). Topical steroids should be ap- Keratomas that appear clinically as digit-like projec- plied with caution to prevent toxicity. These callus-like growths Atarax and oral antibiotics were found to be effective may predispose a bird to bumblefoot (see Chapter in some cases. Virus-induced papillomas are common on the may be prevented by the oral administration of pred- feet of finches in Europe. Initially, the bandage may re- formes, waders, penguins and many Psittaciformes quire daily changing. In Psittaciformes and Passeriformes, changes can be reduced as the wound becomes less most lesions are believed to be the result of malnutri- exudative. Once granulation tissue forms at the edge tion, which causes the skin of the foot to become dry of the ulcers, scabs should be removed and the lesions and hyperkeratotic. Hepatic dysfunction may also be should be kept clean to facilitate healing (see Chap- involved in some cases. The in the treated birds and the indiscriminate admini- fibrous band can be surgically excised to correct the stration of thyroxine, can cause fatal toxicity (see problem (see Chapter 41). Pruritic, ulcerative lesions have been described on Diseases of the Feathers the feet and legs of Amazon parrots (particularly Yellow-naped and Double Yellow-headed Amazon Parrots). The lesions start with a bird chewing at the feet and legs followed by the formation of hyperemic The appearance of malformed, broken, bent, dirty, lesions, sometimes within minutes of the initial stained or unusually colored feathers should be con- pruritic episode. Feather conditions can be divided the bird continues to chew on the feet and legs (Color into two main groups: those affecting normal feath- 24. Characteristic histopathologic findings asso- ers and those in which abnormality of the feather is ciated with this syndrome include ulcerative derma- the primary feature. A simple method to determine if titis that may contain coccoid bacteria and fungi. The a feather problem occurs during or after development role that the bacteria or fungi play in the pathogene- is to remove an affected feather (it should be exam- sis of this syndrome is undetermined. Immune-medi- ined cytologically, microscopically and possibly his- ated and allergic reactions with secondary involve- tologically) and evaluate the growth of the new ment of autochthonous skin flora have been proposed feather over the next one to three weeks. Some common epidermis descriptive terms that may be needed by the clinician Ballooning Intracellular accumulation of fluid (edema) to interpret the results of pathology reports arelisted degeneration in Table 24.
Regression purchase online periactin allergy relief runny nose, though not eradication buy 4mg periactin otc allergy symptoms yeast foods, of the tumors was achieved following subsequent ganciclovir treatment discount 4mg periactin fast delivery allergy testing hair. However cheap 4 mg periactin with amex allergy testing zones, each is characterized by an inability to produce and release insulin in an appropriately regulated manner to control glucose homeostasis. Both diseases have complex pathophysiology, with signiﬁcant genetic and environmental components. The studies relate speciﬁcally to the roles of (1) cytokines and inﬂam- mation, (2) T-lymphocyte subsets, (3) autoantibodies, and (4) antigen presentation. Because cytokine networks are complicated and tightly regulated, it is difﬁcult to identify the roles of individual cytokines in the pathogenesis of spontaneous disease. A related experimental approach was based on the observation that dif- ferent T-cell subsets (Th1 and Th2) secrete different cytokines. Finally, to test the roles of tolerance and autoantibody production, transgenic mice were created that expressed certain antigenic molecules in islet cells at different stages of development. When expres- sion of antigen occurred during early embryonic development, tolerance was estab- lished. However, as expected, when expression occurred during adult life, tolerance was not induced and diabetes resulted. This promoter is transcribed during development and therefore should cause deletion of proinsulin-reactive T cells. These include in vitro genetic manipulation and transplantation of b cell as well as neuroendocrine cell lines, introduction of genes into (non-b) cell types for transformation into b-like cells, and in vivo delivery of gene targeting vectors. Tumor-derived b cells or neuroendocrine cell lines generally do not display appropriately regulated glucose-stimulated insulin production. Engineering of correct secretory responses makes these cells an attractive source of transplantable cells. The modiﬁcation of the hepatocyte genome for treatment of diabetes is being explored using transgenic models. When transgenic and non- transgenic mice were treated with b-cell toxin streptozotocin to induce diabetes, blood glucose levels were signiﬁcantly lower (i. Unfortunately, there are difﬁculties associated with transforming hepatocytes into insulin-producing cells. To address this problem, mutated proinsulin genes have been constructed with novel cleavage sites that can be processed by hepatocytes. By fol- lowing expression of this modiﬁed gene in transgenic mouse hepatocytes, human C-peptide (the expected proinsulin cleavage fragment) was detected in serum. Here, the engineering of genes with multiple regulatory ele- ments combined from different genes has been proposed. The goal is to introduce new genes into autologous cells in culture and return the modiﬁed cells to the patient. Gene therapy ex vivo with autologous hepatocytes is well suited for study in mouse systems. The tech- niques for stimulating hepatocyte proliferation and repopulation by donor cells (autologous or allogeneic) are well established, and the approach, in principle, is reasonable from a clinical standpoint. For these approaches the goal is not to recreate a human disease but rather to create genetic alterations that permit (1) the identiﬁcation of potentially important targets for gene therapy, (2) the optimization of gene targeting expres- sion vectors, (3) the optimization of gene therapy protocols, and (4) recreation of the in vivo context for human tissues using immunodeﬁcient mice. Identiﬁcation of Gene Therapy Targets Appropriate molecular targets for gene therapy should have signiﬁcant causal role(s) in disease pathogenesis as well as be amenable to manipulation. This technique may be especially useful in the modeling of gene therapy for monogenic disorders. Mice can express a transgene encoding a potential thera- peutic molecule and mated to a mutant mouse strain displaying the relevant disease. Correction of the disease phenotype in transgene-bearing mutant mice provides strong evidence that the construct has therapeutic potential. A second application of transgenic mice in modeling constructs involves promoter analysis. Although viral and mammalian gene regulatory elements with a broad tissue speciﬁcity have been used extensively in gene targeting approaches, additional enhancer/promoters are needed. Desperately needed are regulatory elements that provide a pattern of tissue-restricted gene expression that is continuous and at a high level (see Chapter 5). Tissue speciﬁcity may be advantageous from a safety per- spective through restricting expression of potentially toxic therapeutic gene to the target cell populations. The epidermis can be targeted for treatment of skin diseases as well as an easily accessible and manipulative site for the production and secretion of thera- peutic gene products exerting systemic effects. Cytokeratins are a family of epithelial-speciﬁc intermediate ﬁlament proteins expressed differentially within the epidermis as keratinocytes differentiate. Cytokeratin promoters are available and target transgene expression to speciﬁc cell layers of the epidermis. Experiments of this type can be useful as an aid to designing and testing efﬁcacy of therapeutic gene targeting strategies. Unfortunately, current gene deliv- ery systems fall short of this rate of transduction. Relative to transgenic approaches, clinically relevant questions may be: What are the consequences of gene transfer and expression in 1, 5, or 10% of the target cell population? Will these levels of transduction restore function to a genetically deﬁcient tissue or organ? Can expres- sion of the therapeutic gene in one cell beneﬁt a neighboring nontransduced cell, that is, are there juxtacrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects of foreign gene expres- sion or are transgene effects strictly cell autonomous? These questions can be addressed by creating chimeric tissues, which are composed of two genetically dis- tinct cellular populations in variable proportion to one another. Embryo aggregation is performed by physical aggre- gation of two distinct preimplantation embryos at the 4- to 8-cell stage, followed by transfer of the chimeric embryo to the oviduct of a pseudopregnant recipient mouse. In either case, the two populations of cells can associate with one another and develop into a chimeric mouse, which possess in each tissue a variable propor- tion of the two donor genotypes. By manipulating (or selecting for) the level of chimerism in each animal, it is possible to identify the phenotypic effect of a minor- ity population of cells of one genotype upon the majority of cells of a second geno- type. For example, the therapeutic consequences to the cftr-null mouse chimeric with 5% of cells with normal cftr genes could be addressed using this approach. Analysis is facilitated by marking one or both genotypes with reporter genes so that each genotype can be precisely localized in microscopic tissue sections. A related approach involves reconstitution of a tissue by cell transplantation using a mixed population of donor cells of two genotypes. Both mammary gland and liver can be reconstituted as chimeric organs using transplantation of mammary epithelial cells into the caudal mammary fat pads or of hepatocytes into the portal vein. Chimera analysis is being used more frequently to ask fundamental biological questions regarding cellular interactions. It also can be a powerful technique for evaluating the clinical effects of incomplete transduction of a target cell population in a patient. The tissues studied are of murine, not human, origin, and these do not always reproduce a model of human disease. A unique model to study human pathology in animals as well as murine/human biochemistry and physiology is the chimeric animal. Chimeric animals possess either cells, tissues, or organs derived from human stem cells, but limitations in these animals result from inter- actions with systemic autologous growth factors and other biological molecules on cells.
When we have to face danger order 4mg periactin otc allergy symptoms headache, then courage comes; when trial puts a long-continued strain upon us purchase periactin on line amex allergy shots vomiting, we find ourselves possessed by the power to en- dure; or when disaster ultimately brings the fall which we so long dreaded buy 4 mg periactin with amex allergy symptoms 5 month old, we feel underneath us the strength as of the everlasting arms purchase discount periactin online nut allergy treatment uk. You keep your original positive goal, and do not get sidetracked into secondary ones—the desire to run away, to hide, to avoid—by the crisis situation. Or, in the language of William James, your attitude is one of "fight" instead of one of fear or flight. Lecky has said that the purpose of emotion is "re- inforcement," or additional strength, rather than to serve as a sign of weakness. He believed that there was only one basic emotion—"excitement"—and that excitement mani- fests itself as fear, anger, courage, etc. If you lose sight of your original goal, and your attitude-goal becomes one of run- ning away from the crisis, of seeking to somehow get past it by evading it—this running-away tendency will also be re-inforced, and you will experience fear and anxiety. Any normal person who is intelligent enough to under- stand the situation becomes "excited" or "nervous" just before a crisis situation. Until you direct it toward a goal, this excitement is neither fear, anxiety, courage, confi- dence, or anything else other than a stepped-up, re-in- forced supply of emotional steam in your boiler. Experienced actors know that this feeling of excitement just before a performance is a good token. Many of them deliberately "work themselves up" emotionally just be- fore going on stage. Many people place their bets at racetracks on the basis of which horse appears to be the most "nervous" just be- fore going to the post. Trainers also know that a horse which becomes nervous or "spirited" just before a race will perform better man usual. The excitement that you feel just before a crisis situation is an infusion of "spirit" and should be so inter- preted by you. In the course of conversation, I asked if he still made as many public speeches as he had in the past. Yes, he said, as a matter of fact he had changed jobs so that he would be able to speak more and now made at least one public speech every day. Knowing his love for public speaking, I commented that it was good he had this type of work. I speak so often that it has become old-hat to me, and I no longer feel that little tingly feeling in the pit of my stomach, which tells me that I am going to do well. Other people become so aroused under the same circumstances that they perform "over their heads"—their minds work bet- ter and clearer than usual. Or else we do not use our imaginations at all to "see" what the situation really holds, but habitually and unthinkingly re- act as if every simple opportunity or threat were a life- or-death matter. However, if you over-estimate the danger or difficulty, if you react to information that is faulty, dis- torted, or unrealistic, you are likely to call up much more excitement than the occasion calls for. Because the real threat is much less than you have estimated, all this ex-, citement cannot be used appropriately. Philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell tells of a technique which he used on himself to good advan- tage in toning down excessive excitement: "When some misfortune threatens, consider seriously and deliberately what is the very worst that could possibly happen. Hav- ing looked this possible misfortune in the face, give your- self sound reasons for thinking that after all it would be no such terrible disaster. Such reasons always exist, since at the worst nothing that happens to oneself has any cosmic importance. The universe was one huge, dead, immeasur- able steam engine, rolling on, in its dead indifference, to grind me limb from limb. Wherefore, like a coward, dost thou forever pip and whimper, and go cowering and trembling. Well, Death: and say the pangs of Tophet too and all that the Devil and Man may, will or can do against thee! Hast thou not a heart; canst thou not suffer whatso it be: and, as a Child of Freedom, though outcast, trample Tophet itself under thy feet, while it consumes thee? Ever from that time, the temper of my misery was changed: not Fear or whining Sorrow was it, but In- dignation and grim fire-eyed Defiance. Someone has said that the greatest cause of ulcers is mountain-climbing over molehills! A salesman calling upon an important prospect may act as if it were a matter of life or death. A debutante facing her first ball may act as if she were going on trial for her life. Many people going to be interviewed about a job act as if they were "scared to death," and so on. I Perhaps this "life-or-death" feeling that many people experience in any sort of crisis situation, is a heritage from our dim and distant past, when "failure" to primitive man usually was synonymous with "death. Close scrutiny will show that most of these everyday so-called "crisis situations" are not life-or-death matters at all, but opportunities to either advance, or stay where you are. He will either get an order and come out better off than he was—or he will not get the order and be no worse off than before he made the call. One salesman I know doubled his income after he was able to change his attitude from a scary, panicky, "Everything depends upon this" out- look, to the attitude, "I have everything to gain and noth- ing to lose. Practice and learn the simple techniques of this chapter, and you, like hundreds of others before you, can learn to make crisis work for you by making crisis a creative opportunity. Once you give it a definite goal to achieve you can depend upon its automatic guidance-system to take you to that goal much better than "you" ever could by conscious thought. Think in Terms of Possibilities But to accomplish this—"You" must supply the goal. And to supply a goal capable of activating your creative mechanism, you must think of the end result in terms of a present possibility. The possibility of the goal must be seen so clearly that it becomes "real" to your brain and nervous system. So real, in fact, that the same feelings are evoked as would be present if the goal were already achieved. What, for example, is worry about possible unfavorable future re- sults, accompanied by feelings of anxiety, inadequacy, or perhaps humiliation? For all practical purposes we experi- ence the very same emotions in advance, that would be appropriate if we had already failed. We picture failure to ourselves, not vaguely, or in general terms—but vividly and in great detail. Remember what has been emphasized earlier: our brain and nervous system cannot tell the difference between a "real" experience, and one which is vividly imagined. Our automatic creative mechanism always acts and reacts appropriately to the environment, circumstance or situa- tion. The only information concerning the environment, circumstance or situation available to it is what you be- lieve to be true concerning them. On the other hand, if we keep our positive goal in mind, and picture it to ourselves so vividly as to make it "real," and think of it in terms of an accomplished fact, we will also experience "whining feelings": self-confidence, cour- age, and faith that the outcome will be desirable.
The technique is relatively rapid to per- certain sites (eg purchase periactin toronto allergy medicine expiration dates, the ventriculus) buy periactin 4mg with mastercard allergy medicine 2 years, a heavier biopsy form 4 mg periactin amex allergy testing bakersfield ca, but it is a blind procedure order periactin online now allergy shots greenville nc. The advantage of a system- proventriculus, heart and bile duct are at risk for atic approach to endoscopic equipment employing organ trauma. Optically guided biopsies of the liver 20 one manufacturer is that a modular design can be are superior. Entry sites are shown as either left-sided approaches (open) or right-sided approaches (solid). Struc- tures used for orientation include: a) lung b) ostium of the cranial thoracic air sac c) adrenal gland d) gonad e) kidney f) ureter, oviduct, vas deferens area g) abdominal air sac h) caudal thoracic air sac i) liver j) proventriculus k) heart and l) cranial thoracic air sac. Other visible structures include lung Gross view from the end of the sternum in nial thoracic air sac (arrow). This represents how a site should ap- was used to take a picture of a second en- 13. The confluent wall of the right cra- pear if the original entry was performed doscope guided into the intestinal perito- nial thoracic air sac and right ventral he- under aseptic conditions. The (lu), cranial pole of the left kidney (k), normal endoscopic anatomy of the ventral right liver lobe (rl) and left liver lobes (ll) transverse abdominal muscle (m), ilium (i) hepatic peritoneal cavity of a pigeon. For reference purposes, in- caudal thoracic and abdominal air sac is include the sternum (s), deep pectoral mus- clearly visible (arrow). Equipment used for sertion point 2 would provide a similar view cle (m), proventriculus (p) and heart (h). Easily identifiable structures include ribs (r), proventriculus originally clear and now are considered A small tear (arrow) has been created in the cloudy, and there is an increase in vascu- caudal thoracic air sac to enter the under- (p), medial intercostal muscle (m), heart (h), attachment of pericardial sac (arrow), larization. When viewed from insertion lying left ventral hepatic peritoneal cavity point 8, a granuloma is evident in the air of a normal pigeon. Liver (li), proventricu- lung (lu), ostium of cranial thoracic air sac (open arrow) and liver (li). Other structures that are visible lus (p), lung (lu), ostium of caudal thoracic include lung (lu), ilium (i), cranial pole of air sac (o), contiguous wall of the caudal Color 13. Other structures that can be visualized include dal thoracic and abdominal air sac (arrow) the liver. Other visible structures include showing the path of the endoscope when the lung (lu) and proventriculus (p). The confluent wall of the caudal An endoscope has been placed in the oral Caudal view of the choanal area in an Afri- thoracic air sac and left ventral hepatic cavity of a Great Horned Owl showing the can Grey Parrot. The visible structures in- peritoneal cavity membrane are clearly vis- infundibular cleft (arrow), sphenopterygoid clude the choanal slit (c), infundibular cleft ible (arrow). Endoscopic view of the cranial margin of lung as viewed from within the left caudal Note the dark pigmentation and uniform the choanal slit in a Moluccan Cockatoo. The nasal septum (n), left middle nasal Well formed papillae (arrow) are noted on concha (arrow) and nasal mucous mem- Color 13. Liver of an Amazon parrot showing severe ible are the lateral commissures of the biliverdin accumulation secondary to mouth (open arrows) and the tongue (t). Histopathology indi- base of the tongue (t), and blunting and feeding catheter (t) has been introduced into the crop and is just ventral to the cated bile duct carcinoma in an Amazon abscessation of the choanal papillae (ar- parrot. Note the smooth, thin texture and an Amazon parrot showing several white, cavity of a normal Amazon parrot. The choanal (arrow) and lingual papillae An endoscope has been passed into the fluid-filled proventriculus of a pigeon. Other struc- tures that can be visualized include the the openings of the proventricular glands (Insertion point 6, postion B-4 see Figure (arrow) and a pelleted food particle (open 13. Note that the choanal slit ear canal (arrow) and caudal wall of the ear pionus parrot. The substantial vascularity does not contain papillae, but that papillae canal (open arrow). Reading small sur- gical biopsies from exotic avian species is a relatively Preparation of Small Biopsies specialized area of pathology. Best results are likely The biopsies obtained with the types of forceps pre- to be obtained by working with a consultant patholo- viously mentioned are small and must be handled gist who has a real interest and expertise in this field. Vari- Timely reporting of results is essential to enable the ous techniques have been recommended in the past clinician to make optimal use of the biopsy information. Wrapping tiny pieces of tissue in filter paper or a very fine cloth Products Mentioned in the Text before immersion in the fixative is one method. J Am Vet Med Assoc (eds): Clinical Avian Medicine and avian tuberculosis by laparoscopy 5. Utrecht, PhD Thesis, 1987, pp the endoscopic determination of sex body cavities and air sacs of Gallus male and male. Necropsy examination often is C H A P T E R N performed to determine the cause of an unexpected death. However, a thorough and system- atic postmortem examination also may be used to confirm a clinical diagnosis, identify the etiology of a disease process, explain apparent unresponsiveness to treatment or reveal unrecognized disease proc- esses. Integration of necropsy findings with clinical 14 signs and laboratory data ultimately will enhance the clinician’s understanding of disease processes and sharpen clinical diagnostic skills. In addition, necropsy will confirm radiographic interpretations and reinforce applied anatomy, which enhances sur- gical skills. This chapter emphasizes the ne- cropsy of psittacine and passerine birds; anatomic variations of other avian species such as ratites may be found by consulting appropriate chapters in this textbook and published articles in the veterinary literature. Rakich by following a systematic approach and using ancil- lary support services as needed to establish a defini- tive diagnosis. Ancillary support services include his- topathology, clinical pathology, microbiology, parasitology and toxicology. Several excellent sources of information, in addition to this textbook, are available to help the clinician The body size of most birds encountered in practice verify questionable anatomic structures, identify will range from a finch to a duck. While recognition in tissue incision, dissection and specimen procure- and interpretation of gross lesions may allow con- ment. Such instruments should be dedicated for ne- struction of a differential diagnosis as to the cause of cropsy use only and be thoroughly cleaned and disin- death, few gross lesions are pathognomonic. There- fected (eg, glutaraldehyde, phenol, gas, steam) after fore, various ancillary services usually are required each use to maintain good functional integrity and to determine the cause of death. Furthermore, com- prevent carryover of pathogens that could adversely munication of clinical, laboratory and necropsy find- influence future necropsy results. Furthermore, in- ings to the pathologist will vastly improve interpre- struments that are sterilized in chemical disinfec- tation of the tissues and histopathologic evaluation. Lastly, the quality of the final diagno- b sealable plastic bags to obtain microbiologic and sis is directly proportional to the quality of the speci- parasitologic specimens; sterile collection tubes for mens submitted and the information provided with blood, serum or body cavity fluids; and glass slides, them. A camera, macro lens sys- Medical Precautions tem, flash unit and copy stand can provide photo- graphic documentation of unusual lesions. When performing avian necropsies, the health and well being of the veterinarian and staff members The routine fixative for collection of tissue specimens should be considered. Zoonotic diseases of special for histologic examination is neutral-buffered 10% concern include chlamydiosis, mycobacteriosis, sal- formalin solution. Some formalin solution cal masks, eye protection, gloves and disinfectants recipes, such as Carson’s fixative, provide excellent are recommended.
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