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Southern Czechs used to place St John’s wort on their beds on St John’s Eve in the hope that the saint would lay upon it at night and bless the herb with cura- tive powers buy lanoxin in india blood pressure medication patch. So remedies are taken in increasing or decreasing doses for 9-day periods followed by 9 days without treatment purchase 0.25mg lanoxin with visa blood pressure medication enalapril side effects. A recent study of medicinal plants in the Pallars region of Catalonia found that 109 of 410 herbs were administered in such novenes cheap 0.25mg lanoxin amex blood pressure 50 over 20. In the moun- tainous Molise region of central southern Italy lanoxin 0.25 mg amex blood pressure medication for anxiety, for example, the practice of winding old man’s beard (Clematis vitalba) seven times around the necks of nervous sheep has been recently recorded. Within family groups, women were usually the main practi- tioners and principal repositories of healing knowledge. Recent studies have found that they make up most of the remaining few traditional folk healers. Women were thought to possess natural abilities for dealing with certain problems, particularly those associated with childbirth and children. As literacy levels were much lower among women than men in much of Europe, until the advent of compulsory education, women were also more associated with oral traditions of medical knowledge, such as obtaining healing gifts from the fairy realm. Furthermore, the fact that, until the late nineteenth century, women were largely excluded from licensed medical practice meant that as healers they were systematically classified both at the time and by later historians as belonging to unofficial categories of medicine, labelled variously as ‘unqualified’, ‘alternative’, ‘casual’, ‘popular’ or ‘folk’. Seventh sons and daughters, for example, were commonly thought to have an innate healing ability, as were those born in a caul. The tradition of charming, an integral aspect of European folk medicine based primarily on verbal or written charms containing biblical passages, apocrypha and stories of mythical encounters, was passed down through families from generation to generation, sometimes contrasexually, in other words from male to female and vice versa. Although the folk medicine of some societies on other continents has been, and still is, a purely oral tradition, the history of its development and nature in Europe cannot be understood without recognition of the influence of print culture. With the advent of print in the late fifteenth century, and the significant growth of literacy across much of northern and western Europe in the following centuries, access to medical literature spread far beyond the libraries of the clergy and licensed physicians. The Herbarius, published in Mainz in 1485, was particularly influential, being the source of numerous subsequent Traditional European folk medicine | 33 texts, such as the first printed Polish herbal, Stefan Falimirz’s On Herbs and their Power, published in 1534. The medical recipes and notions of the ancient physicians also found their way into hugely popular manuals containing the ‘secrets’ of the natural world. One of the most influential of these books was falsely attributed to the mediaeval German Dominican friar and scientist Albertus Magnus (about 1193–1280), though most of its contents were culled from Pliny and works alleged to have been written by Aristotle. Le Grand Albert, as it came to be known in France, began to be sold in a cheap format in the eighteenth century, and its spread to French colonies in the Caribbean and Indian Ocean region had a considerable influence on folk medical traditions there. Almanacs published in Estonia between 1731 and 1900 included information about the use of around 55 medicinal plants. As Christian Mangor noted in his Norwegian Lande-apothek (Country Apothecary), first published in 1767 and reprinted numerous times over the next century, such works were important as ‘few can afford medicines from the apothecary, let alone the cost of a doctor’s travel, time, and trouble’. Some authors were also inspired by concerns over the quality of officially prescribed medicines. In the 1760 edition of his Primitive Physic, John Wesley said of the apothecary: ‘perhaps he has not the drug prescribed by the physician, and so puts in its place “what will do as well. Wesley was, of course, the founder of Methodism, and we see elsewhere the evangelical Protestant impulse for self- help in bodily as well as spiritual care. In Estonia, for example, several German pastors produced influential health guides for the common people, such as Otto Jannau’s Country People’s Home Doctor or a Short Guide how Every Reasonable Person in His House and Family Can Help if Somebody is Sick, but Doctor is Unavailable (1857). In nineteenth- and twentieth-century France numerous editions of the cheap self-help guide Le Médecin des pauvres 34 | Traditional medicine contained traditional healing charms. Its popularity may have created a certain degree of uniformity in the charming tradition as the print versions of the charms seeped into the oral and manuscript record of healing knowl- edge. The ‘quack doctor’ or charlatan was defined, in part, by the entrepreneurial exploita- tion of newspaper advertising, handbills and bogus certificates of official sanction. Quacks vaunted their scientific credentials, but in practice often relied on what were seen by the eighteenth-century medical establishment as either fraudulent facsimiles of orthodox medicine or miraculous, herbal or sympathetic modes of folk medical cure. In folk culture books were thought to contain secret knowledge otherwise unobtainable in the oral medical tradition. Cultural exchange We need to be aware of the non-European influences on the history of Euro- pean medicine. The importance of Arabic science and medicine during the mediaeval period is well recorded. In Europe much knowledge of classical medicine was lost for centuries after the collapse of the Roman Empire, and so the Arabic world became the main repository of ancient Greek and Roman medical theory. Most of Galen’s writings had been translated into Arabic by the tenth century, and it was largely thanks to mediaeval Arab and Jewish scholars in Spain and Constantinople that Galenic theory came to dominate European medicine until the eighteenth century. As well as this crucial role in the development of orthodox western medicine, the Moorish populations of Spain, and Jewish communities across Europe, maintained distinctive folk medical traditions, the practitioners of which were also consulted by Christians. During the sixteenth century the secular authorities and the Inquisition in Spain made a concerted effort to suppress Muslim physicians and Arabic texts, denigrating Arabic–Galenic medicine. As a consequence, over the next few centuries Moorish medical practitioners largely operated within the magical–medical context of curandismo, prac- tising herbalism, using charms, and curing and diagnosing based on the Islamic tradition that diseases were embodied by demons or djinns. As a study of folk medicine in Murcia in south-eastern Spain observed, the Latin, Moorish and Jewish medical traditions in the region’s folk belief and practice are so entwined that it is a difficult task to disentangle them. Studying folk medical knowledge provides one of the few ways of mapping the cultural experience of these different migrant populations and their adaptation to new environments. They are the ancestors of Genoese migrants who, in the sixteenth century, colonised the small island of Tabarka off the Tunisian coast. After two centuries they were forced to flee to Sardinia where they founded their own communities. Researchers recently studied their folk phytotherapy and found that nothing significant remained of their north African experience. But, while they had evidently adopted Sardinian herbal medical traditions, their Genoese heritage was still apparent in their names for local plants. In eighteenth-century Portugal, healers of African descent, who were brought to the country as slaves either directly from Africa or more commonly from Brazil, attracted considerable renown for their curative powers. The Portuguese Inquisition tried between 15 and 20 healers in the period, among them Maria Grácia, a 40-year-old Angolan slave owned by a wool contractor in Evora. She was tried in 1724 for curing witchcraft-inspired illnesses and the ‘malady of the moon’. Her Christian charms did not owe anything to her Angolan homeland, however, but the exoticism of her skin colour and African heritage lent her and other Luso- African healers, women in particular, popular esteem among the Portuguese for their possession of occult knowledge. Research has recently been conducted, for example, on folk medicine among Thai women in Sweden, Surinamese immigrants in Amsterdam and Sikh 36 | Traditional medicine communities in London. A study of traditional medicines used by a Pakistani migrant community in Bradford, England, reveals that, although most of the herbal remedies used are not known in the western tradition, the interviewees subscribe to the Unani medical tradi- tion, which developed in mediaeval Persia but was based on ancient Greek humoral theory (Unani means Greek). Even before European colonial expansion from the sixteenth century onwards, ingredients had long arrived from the east. Cloves, mace and nutmeg were being traded across Europe by the thirteenth century.
Laboratory diagnosis: Specimen: Serum for serological tests The serological tests to diagnose typhus are: 1 buy cheap lanoxin 0.25 mg line blood pressure 200 100. The smallest living micro-organism capable of free living in nature self-replicating on laboratory media buy 0.25mg lanoxin overnight delivery blood pressure entry chart. Highly pleomorphic due to absence of rigid cell wall buy discount lanoxin line heart attack zippo lighter, instead bounded by a triple-layered “unit membrane” order 0.25 mg lanoxin with mastercard blood pressure 152 over 90. Have enzyme systems and make their own proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and vitamins. The elementary body is reorganized into reticulate body in the host cell which is specifically adapted for intracellular growth. The reticulate body grows and divides many times to form inclusions in the host cell cytoplasm. With in 24-48 hours of developmental cycle, the reticulate bodies rearrange them selves into infective elementary bodies and released after host cell rupture. Antigenic structure: Group-specific antigen Species-specific antigen Chlamydia trachomatis. Appearance in giemsa’s stain Elementary body -------- Purple Reticulate body---------- Blue Host cell cytoplasm----- Blue. Appearance in iodine stain Brown inclusions in host cell cytoplasm because of glycogen matrix surrounding the particle. Incubation period is 3-10 days Route of transmission is through indirect contact like eye-to- eye by infected fingers or sharing towels. It manifests as a chronic keratoconjunctivitis producing scarring and deformity of the eyelids, corneal vascularization and opacities which may lead to blindness. Laboratory diagnosis: Specimen: Conjunctival scraping from upper tarsal conjunctivae. Culture: Mac coy cells or embryonated eggs Serology: Immunofluorescent tests Treatment: Erythromycin Tetracycline Control measures:. Females------ Urethritis Cervicitis Pelvic inflamatory diseases If complicated in females, it causes infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis and neonatal pneumonia Transmission is during passage through the infected birth canal. Laboratorydiagnosis: Specimen: Endocervical scraping Culture: mac coy cells Serology: Enzyme immunoassay for group-specific antigen. On the basis of their life habits, microorganism is classified as saprophytes or parasites. Saprophytes : Mode of life of free-living organisms which obtain their nourishment from soil and water. Commensalism: The ability to live on the external or internal surface of the body with out causing disease. Invasiveness of micro-organism A high degree of bacterial invasiveness is usually associated with severe infection. Mode of release from bacteria Excreted by released on bacterial death 295 living cell (Integral part of cell wall) 4. Collagenase: Degrade collagen, which is major protein of fibrous connective tissue. Hyaluronidase: (Early spreading factor) hydrolyzes hyaluronidic acid, which is the ground substance of connective tissue. Lecithinase: Splits lecithin of cell membrane into phosphorylcholine and glycerides. Many layered impermeable barrier to invasion of the tissues by microorganisms from the environment. Lysozyme: An enzyme which lyses the mucopeptide (peptidoglycan) of the Gram-positive bacteria. Respiratory secretion: Traps bacteria and constantly moves them upward propelled by cilia on the cells of the epithelium. Phagocytosis: The process by which microorganisms are ingested and destrrroyed by phagocytic cells. Act as an early defense against infection and are the “pus cells” seen in the exudate from acute infection. Produced in the bone marrow and found in blood stream as monocyte and in tissue as fixed macrophage. Phagolysosome: Fusion ofphagosome and lysozyme (bag of hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes found in phagocytic cells). Specific defense mechanisms There are two main mechanisms by which the host mounts a specific immune response against bacterial infection. The cell mediated response The humoral response Antibodies are proteins produced by B-lymphocytes in response to antigens (foreign substance which induces and binds with antibody). Bacterial Lysis The cell mediated response It is important in killing of intracellular pathogenic bacteria. T-lymphocytes are population of lymphocytes conferring cell mediated immunity due to release of hormone-like mediators (lymphokines). Inhibition of macrophage migration: Localizes macrophage to the site of infection. Chemotactic attraction of lymphocytes, macrophages and polymorphs to the site of infection. Transient normal flora Resident normal floras are relatively fixed microorganisms regularly inhabiting the skin and mucus membrane of the normal host. Prevent colonization by pathogenic micro-organisms and possible disease through “bacterial interference”. Normal flora of the skin 4 The skin is rich in resident bacterial flora, estimated at 10 microbes per square inch. Alpha-hemolytic streptococci and non-hemolytic streptococci 301 Normal flora of the mouth and nasopharynx and upper respiratory tract The upper respiratory tract is heavily colonized by normal flora but the lower respiratory tract is sterile. Normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract The normal flora of the stomach, duodenum, jejunum and upper ileum is scanty but the large intestine is very heavily colonized with bacteria. Anaerobes like bacteroides, bifidobacteria, anaerobic lactobacilli, clostridia and peptostreptococci Feces contain enormous number of bacteria, which constitute upto one third of the fecal weight. Normal flora of the genitourinary tract For anatomical reasons the female genital tract is much more heavily colonized than that of the male. Non-hemolytic streptococci Normal flora of the external auditary meatus It is an extension of skin normal flora and often profusely colonized. Extensive tissue destruction with necrosis of muscle, foul smelling discharge and gas under the skin. Dirty wound Laboratory diagnosis: Specimen: Swab from lesion, ulcer and discharge. Culture: Blood agar medium and Mac Conkey agar medium Biochemical and sensitivity testing for microbe identification. Diagnosis: Specimen: Lavage/drainage of sinuses Procedure: Gram staining, culture, biochemical testing, serological testing and sensitivity testing Treatment: Amoxicillin/ampicillin Co-trimoxazole 2. Chronic suppurative otitis media Long standing ear disease characterized by periods of exacerbation with profuse ear discharge and pain; and remission with relatively dry ear.
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At each stage in the peptide synthesis a second parallel synthesis is carried out on the same bead to attach the oligonucleotide tag (Figure 6 order lanoxin uk blood pressure 40 over 60. In other words generic lanoxin 0.25 mg fast delivery blood pressure medication blue pill, two alternating parallel syntheses are carried out at the same time order lanoxin pills in toronto hypertension hypokalemia. On comple- tion of the peptide synthesis purchase lanoxin 0.25mg line high blood pressure medication new zealand, the oligonucleotide tag is isolated from the bead and its base sequence determined and decoded to give the sequence of amino acid residues in the peptide. The sequence of amino acids in the encoding peptide is determined using the Edman sequencing method. This amino acid sequence is used to determine the history of the formation and hence the structure of the product found on that bead. One or more of these tags are directly attached to the resin using a photolabile linker at the appropriate points in the synthesis. They indicate the nature of the building block and the stage at which it was incorpor- ated into the solid support (Table 6. They are selected on the basis that their retention times are roughly equally spaced (Figure 6. The gas chromatogram is read like a bar code to account for the history of the bead. The presence of T1 shows that in the first stage of the synthesis the first amino acid residue is glycine. This residue will be attached via its the C-terminus of the peptide if a linker with an amino group was used and its N-terminus if a linker with an acid group was used. The presence of T3 shows that the second residue is also glycine, whilst the presence of T5 and T6 indicates that the third amino acid in the peptide is serine. Silicon chips can be coded to receive and store radio signals in the form of a binary code. The silicon chip and beads are placed in a container known as a can that is porous to the reagents used in the synthesis. Each can is closed and treated as though it were one bead in a mix and split synthesis. The cans are divided into the required number of aliquots corresponding to the number of building blocks used in the initial step of the synthesis. Each batch of cans is reacted with its own building block and the chip is irradiated with the appropri- ate radio signal for that building block. The mix and split procedure is followed and at each step the chips in the batch are irradiated with the appropriate radio signal. At the end of the synthesis the prepared library compound is cleaved from the chip, which is interrogated to determine the history of the compound synthesized on the chip. The method has the advantage of producing larger amounts of the required compounds than the normal mix and split approach because the same compound is produced on all the beads in a can. Consequently, many of the strategies used for the preparation of libraries using solution chemis- try are directed to the purification of the products of each steps of the synthesis. This and other practical problems has usually restricted the use of solution combinatorial chemistry to synthetic pathways consisting of two or three steps. Combinatorial synthesis in solution can be used to produce libraries that consist of single compounds or mixtures using traditional organic chemistry. Single compound libraries are prepared using the parallel synthesis technique (see section 6. Libraries of mixtures are formed by separately reacting each of the members of a set of similar compounds with the same mixture of all the members of the second set of compounds. Consider, for example, a combinator- 1 5 ial library of amides formed by reacting a set of five acid chlorides (A –A ) with 1 10 ten amines (B –B ). Each of the five acid chlorides is reacted separately with an equimolar mixture of all ten amines and each of the amines is reacted with an equimolar mixture of all the acid chlorides (Figure 6. This produces a library consisting of a set of five mixtures based on individual acid halides and 10 mixtures based on individual amines. This means that each compound in the library is prepared twice, once from the acid chloride set and once from the amine set. A2 + (B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,B6,B7,B8,B9,B10) Mixture 2 containing all the possible A2−B compounds. A5 + (B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,B6,B7,B8,B9,B10) 5 Mixture 5 containing all the possible A −B compounds. The amine based set: B1 + (A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,) Mixture 6 containing all the possible B1−A compounds. This method of identifying the structure of the most active component of combinatorial libraries of mixtures is known as deconvolution (see section 6. It depends on both the mixtures containing the active compound giving a positive result for the assay procedure. It is not possible to identify the active structure if one of the sets of mixtures gives a negative result. In this case all the possible structures have to be synthesized and tested separately. However, it is generally found that the activities of the library mixtures are usually higher than those exhibited by the individual compounds responsible for activity after they have been isolated from the mixture. A key problem with very large com- binatorial libraries of mixtures is the large amount of work required to screen these libraries. Deconvolution is a method, based on the process of elimination, of reducing the number of screening tests required to locate the most active member of a library consisting of a mixture of all the components. It is based on producing and biologically assaying similar secondary libraries that contain one less build- ing block than the original library. It is emphasized that the biological assay is carried out on a mixture of all the members of the secondary library. If the secondary library is still as active as the original library the missing building block is not part of the active structure. Repetition of this process will eventually result in a library that is inactive, which indicates that the missing building block in this library is part of the active structure. This procedure is carried out for each of the building blocks at each step in the synthesis. Suppose, for example, one has a tripeptide library consisting of a mixture of 1000 compounds. This 1 10 library was produced from 10 different amino acids (A –A ) using two syn- thetic steps, each of which involved 10 building blocks (Figure 6. The 1 formation of a secondary library by omitting amino acid A from the initial set of amino acids but reacting these nine with all 10 amino acids in the first and second steps would produce 900 compounds. These compounds will not contain 1 amino acid residue A in the first position of the tripeptide. If the resulting library is biologically inactive the active compound must contain the residue at position one in the tripeptide.
The psychologists associated with the school of behaviorism order 0.25mg lanoxin fast delivery blood pressure chart for elderly, on the other hand 0.25 mg lanoxin overnight delivery blood pressure below 100, were reacting in part to the difficulties psychologists encountered when they tried to use introspection to understand behavior cheap lanoxin online blood pressure medication withdrawal. Behaviorism is a school of psychology that is based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind discount lanoxin blood pressure 65, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to the study of behavior itself. Behaviorists believe that the human mind is a “black box‖ into which stimuli are sent and from which responses are received. They argue that there is no point in trying to determine what happens in the box because we can successfully predict behavior without knowing what happens inside the mind. Furthermore, behaviorists believe that it is possible to develop laws of learning that can explain all behaviors. Watson was influenced in large part by the work of the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), who had discovered that dogs would salivate at the sound of a tone that had previously been associated with the presentation of food. Watson and the other behaviorists began to use these Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. For instance, in Pavlov’s research the stimulus (either the food or, after learning, the tone) would produce the response of salivation in the dogs. In his research Watson found that systematically exposing a child to fearful stimuli in the presence of objects that did not themselves elicit fear could lead the child to respond with a fearful behavior to the presence of the stimulus (Watson & Rayner, 1920; Beck, Levinson, &  Irons, 2009). In the best known of his studies, an 8-month-old boy named Little Albert was used as the subject. Here is a summary of the findings: The boy was placed in the middle of a room; a white laboratory rat was placed near him and he was allowed to play with it. In later trials, the researchers made a loud sound behind Albert’s back by striking a steel bar with a hammer whenever the baby touched the rat. After several such pairings of the two stimuli, the child was again shown the rat. In line with the behaviorist approach, the boy had learned to associate the white rat with the loud noise, resulting in crying. Skinner used the ideas of stimulus and response, along with the application of rewards or reinforcements, to train pigeons and other animals. And he used the general principles of behaviorism to develop theories about how best to teach children and how to create societies that were peaceful and productive. Skinner even developed a method for studying thoughts and  feelings using the behaviorist approach (Skinner, 1957, 1968, 1972). In terms of the nature-nurture debate, the behaviorists agreed with the nurture approach, believing that we are shaped exclusively by our environments. They also argued that there is no free will, but rather that our behaviors are determined by the events that we have experienced in our past. In short, this approach argues that organisms, including humans, are a lot like puppets in a show who don‘t realize that other people are controlling them. Furthermore, although we do not cause our own actions, we nevertheless believe that we do because we don‘t realize all the influences acting on our behavior. Recent research in psychology has suggested that Skinner and the behaviorists might well have been right, at least in the sense that we overestimate our own free will in responding to the events around us (Libet, 1985; Matsuhashi &  Hallett, 2008; Wegner, 2002). The participants were asked, whenever they decided to, to press either of two buttons. Then they were asked to indicate which letter was showing on the screen when they decided to press the button. The researchers analyzed the brain images to see if they could predict which of the two buttons the participant was going to press, even before the letter at which he or she had indicated the decision to press a button. Suggesting that the intention to act occurred in the brain before the research participants became aware of it, the researchers found that the prefrontal cortex region of the brain showed activation that could be used to predict the button press as long as 10 seconds before the participants said that they decided which button to press. Research has found that we are more likely to think that we control our behavior when the desire to act occurs immediately prior to the outcome, when the thought is consistent with the outcome, and when there are no other  apparent causes for the behavior. Aarts, Custers, and Wegner (2005) asked their research participants to control a rapidly moving square along with a computer that was also controlling the square independently. When participants were exposed to words related to the location of the square just before they stopped its movement, they became more likely to think that they controlled the motion, even when it  was actually the computer that stopped it. And Dijksterhuis, Preston, Wegner, and Aarts (2008) found that Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Because we normally expect that our behaviors will be met with success, when we are successful we easily believe that the success is the result of our own free will. When an action is met with failure, on the other hand, we are less likely to perceive this outcome as the result of our free will, and we are more likely to  blame the outcome on luck or our teacher (Wegner, 2003). The behaviorists made substantial contributions to psychology by identifying the principles of learning. Although the behaviorists were incorrect in their beliefs that it was not possible to measure thoughts and feelings, their ideas provided new ideas that helped further our understanding regarding the nature-nurture debate as well as the question of free will. The ideas of behaviorism are fundamental to psychology and have been developed to help us better understand the role of prior experiences in a variety of areas of psychology. The Cognitive Approach and Cognitive Neuroscience Science is always influenced by the technology that surrounds it, and psychology is no exception. Thus it is no surprise that beginning in the 1960s, growing numbers of psychologists began to think about the brain and about human behavior in terms of the computer, which was being developed and becoming publicly available at that time. The analogy between the brain and the computer, although by no means perfect, provided part of the impetus for a new school of psychology called cognitive psychology. Cognitive psychology is a field of psychology that studies mental processes, including perception, thinking, memory, and judgment. Although cognitive psychology began in earnest in the 1960s, earlier psychologists had also taken a cognitive orientation. Some of the important contributors to cognitive psychology include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909), who studied the ability of people to remember lists of words under different conditions, and the English psychologist Sir Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. Bartlett created short stories that were in some ways logical but also contained some very unusual and unexpected events. Bartlett discovered that people found it very difficult to recall the stories exactly, even after being allowed to study them repeatedly, and he hypothesized that the stories were difficult to remember because they did not fit the participants’ expectations about how stories should go. The idea that our memory is influenced by what we already know was also a major idea behind the cognitive-developmental stage model of Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896–1980). Broadbent (1926–1993), Daniel Kahneman (1934–), George Miller (1920–), Eleanor Rosch (1938–), and Amos Tversky (1937–1996). The War of the Ghosts The War of the Ghosts was a story used by Sir Frederic Bartlett to test the influence of prior expectations on memory. Bartlett found that even when his British research participants were allowed to read the story many times they still could not remember it well, and he believed this was because it did not fit with their prior knowledge. One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals and while they were there it became foggy and calm. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of paddles, and saw one canoe coming up to them. But presently the young man heard one of the warriors Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. So the canoes went back to Egulac and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire. And he told everybody and said: ―Behold I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to fight.